1CAFÉ Session 2010 Summer Literacy Workshop Presented by:Dr. Karin Keith, LaDonna Boone, and Nancy Miles
24 research-based components critical to reading What is CAFÉ?4 research-based components critical to readingC – ComprehensionA – AccuracyF – FluencyE – Expand Vocabulary
3CAFÉ Definitions and Goals ComprehensionThe essence of reading cognitive processintegrates complex skillsVocabulary instruction is critical to comprehensionTo make meaning from textTo independently apply active, cognitive strategies while readingAccuracyThe ability to read text on the page accuratelyTo use reading strategies independentlyFluencyThe ability to read text quickly, accurately, and with appropriate expression with no noticeable cognitive or mental effortTo read smoothlyTo read with expressionTo be able to read words with automaticityTo aid with comprehensionExpand VocabularyGive access to meanings of words to guide students to learn new conceptsTo find new wordsTo learn the meaning of new wordsTo use new words appropriately
4Core Elements of CAFÉ Reader’s Workshop format…a balance of: Individual teaching/conferringsmall groupwhole groupResearch by Pressley (2006) and Taylor, Pearson, Clark, and Walpole (2000) found that “the more effective classrooms have a distribution of whole-class, small-group, and side-by-side instruction. The more whole-class teaching offered, the lower the academic achievement in any school.”The CAFÉ Book: Engaging all Students in Daily Literacy Assessment and Instruction, Boshey and Moser, 2009.
5Core Elements of CAFÉ Individual teaching/conferring: The teacher keeps a notebook with:record keeping formscalendar (to keep track of conferences with individual students)individual student conference formsstrategy group (guided reading group) plansTeacher conferences with students during literacy block include:assessmentfocused, explicit instructionsetting goals using CAFÉ menufollowing up on progressTeacher keeps track of progress in the notebook. Other children are involved in Daily 5 tasks.
6Core Elements of CAFÉ Small group instruction: based on clusters of students with similar needs in one of the CAFÉ categoriesgroups are flexible, based on needs rather than reading levelsoften the teacher meets with groups of children who are reading different books at different levels but working on the same goal (such as comprehension or fluency).
7Core Elements of CAFÉ Whole group instruction: based on needs that emerge for many children, often using texts from whole class read alouds or other shared materialswhere you teach strategies that go under Comprehension (C), Accuracy (A), Fluency (F), and Expand Vocabulary (E)Show a CAFÉ menu
9Signs/Indicators of Readers What are signs or indicators that show where students are or are not within all areas of CAFÉ?ObserveAnalyzePlan
10Gradual Release ModelResearch based on Pearson and Gallagher (1983), Debbie Miller (2002), and Jeffrey Wilhelm (2001)ModelingI do, You watchGuided PracticeI do, You helpIndependent PracticeYou do, I helpApplicationYou do, I watch
11Conferring in CAFÉ What is conferring? Why is it important in CAFÉ? Explicit, direct one-on-one teaching with a studentWhy is it important in CAFÉ?Allows us to use our assessment data effectivelyCoaching sessions based on child’s individual goal(s) and strategy; child helps set goal(s)Helps us work toward and keep track of each child’s strength and goals so we can maximize our time with him/herGives us a forum to present strategies so students can access them when needed and practice them until they are proficientDiscuss difference between 1 on 1 discussions and conferring
12Conferring Notebook Party! Forms you will need for your notebook:CAFÉ menu templateCalendarKeeping TrackReading Goal SheetStrategy Group SheetDividers/tabs for each student
13How Do I Get Started with CAFÉ? Begins with assessmentBOY (beginning of year) palm pilot assessment; especially TRC dataIndividual teacher assessmentsDuring assessment, ask yourself, “Which of the four components is this child using well? Which component is he/she finding the most challenging?” The answer to the second question will be the child’s goal. Within the goal, we analyze which strategy we should teach next to help him/her become a more proficient reader.Data template foldable
14I Have the Data…Now What? Questions to ask yourself:“Am I ready to begin?”“Are my students comfortable working independently in Daily 5/Literacy Centers?”“Do they know the daily whole group routine?”If you answer “yes” to these questions, then JUMP IN!
15Elements of Successful Conferences FocusedObserve and listen closely to the childTeach and/or reinforce their strategyHave the child practice the strategyFast3-5 minutes per studentAccountableTeaching children to look more closely at where they are now as readers and where they might go tomorrow or over the next weekPromotes a shared language with the reader
16CAFÉ Conferring Guide Prepare for the conference. Observe the child and listen to reading.Reinforce and teach.Practice the strategy.Plan.Encourage.(see CAFÉ Conferring Guide handout)
18Strategy group Guided Reading group Focus on literacy skill Clustered based onliteracy goalShorter termFocus on reading levelFormed based on abilityto decodeLonger termDaily 5AssessmentsSG goal: introduce, practice, and reinforce a strategy that students have a common need for, students practice the strategy using their own self-selected books from their book boxesGR goal: same reading level practice decoding skills using a set of books selected by teacher
19Forming a Strategy Group Assess students’ reading abilitiesConfer individually with studentsDaily 5 is up and runningCluster students based on literacy needPlan strategy group lessonLook at daily schedule again to see when strategy groups meet
20Launching a Strategy Group Students gather in small groupTeacher listens inIntroduce group’s goal by modelingStudents practice, teacher listens/coachesReinforce the targetPlan for next meeting timePractice – “off you go!”Students bring book boxes, start with students most at risk. Introduce – model right and wrong ways if effective, after introduced you should reinforce groups goal by reminding them of their goal and mention positive behaviors you observed while they were reading, practice may be on their own during Daily 5 or with a partner remaining in the groupOnce up and running, refer to conferring notebook schedule to determine when to meet with strategy groups
21“F” is for Fluency . . . Secret to success: . . . the ability to read text accurately, quickly, with good inflection so that time can be given to comprehensionSecret to success:maximize the amount of time students are reading “good fit” books at school and at home!Define fluency… What do you do automatically? Ride a bike, drive a car, CRITICAL GATEWAY TO COMPREHENSIONProvides the BRIDGE between WORD RECOGNITION and COMPREHENSION –frees the mind to focus energy on meaning of text
22reads smoothly, not choppy A student with good fluency…reads smoothly, not choppyrecognizes words automatically, strong decoding strategies in placesounds like character’s voicegroups words quickly, not reading word by wordread aloud effortlessly and with expressionrecognizes words and comprehends at the same timeReading reflects punctuationA student weak in fluency…Cannot decode wellHas weak phonemic awarenessRecognizes very few HF wordsNeeds more practice with familiar spelling patternsNeeds more time reading at their own independent reading levelReading is much slower than typical talking rateDoesn’t use phrasing or inflection based on punctuation of text
23CAFÉ video Strategy group lesson on fluency Turn and Talk Video – How was strategy demonstrated? How did the student practice? Accountability for thinking? How did group nudge the reader?
24Teaching Points What does this group still need to work on? Determine if target was met.Discuss teaching goal with students.Note next teaching point on strategygroup form.If target met, note in the touchpoint area
25Turn and Talk!How are CAFÉ groups different than Guided Reading groups?What are the challenges of working with students in a group that are on different reading levels?What are the benefits of grouping students by literacy skill need?
26Teaching Strategies - Fluency Voracious readingRead appropriate level text – good fit!Re-read textPractice sight/HF wordsAdjust & apply different reading rates to match textUse punctuation to match and enhance phrasing and inflectionHand out of teaching ideas for fluency REMINDER: Fast is not always better!
27What’s on my menu? New things I learned about fluency . . . New things I learned about strategy groups . . .What do I want to do different this school year?
29Launching Whole Group Instruction Look for pattern of needs among studentsSmall groupIndividual conferringTeacher observationDIBELS results K, 1; TRC results K, 1, 2Look at schedule to revisit when you teach whole group
30Elements of Whole Group Instruction Identify what is to be taughtTeach the strategy – anchor to textPartner talkStudent creates/posts CAFÉ menu card(if 1st time taught)Review purpose & reason for strategyEncourage practice during independent timeSharing time – “I tried it!”Continue to connect strategiesIdentify – use assessment notes, Anchor – text, chapter book, anchor chart, Partner talk – teach this strategy early in the school year, Review-why use strategy? When is it most useful?, Practice-daily 5, reinforce & nudge students to use it, Sharing – children who use it successfully can be named the “expert” for others to consultLOOK AT SCHEDULE to determine when whole group is taught
31“E” is for Expand Vocabulary Speaking“E” is for Expand VocabularyWritingReadingCite Allington’s workListening
32Vocabulary Research indicates . . . Time spent reading in class is critical to vocabulary acquisition.Achievement Percentile Min. Read/Day Words/Year Exposure90th 40.4 2,357,00050th 12.9 601,00010th 1.6 51,000“Reading naturally exposes students to an individualized vocabulary. A vast majority of vocabulary is learned in the context of reading.”-Richard AllingtonCite Allington’s research
33Explicitly Teach Vocabulary Knowing the meaning of words can help frontload fluency & support comprehensionExample: “Jam”Strong relationship between word-meaning knowledge and contructing meaning – tied to comprehension!
34CAFÉ video Whole group lesson – Expand Vocabulary Turn and Talk Whole group lesson on vocabulary, mention charts on board – ABC chart (word collector) and “instead of” chartsSet goals for children within whole group, “Try this yourself today during Daily 5”Encourage children to use these words in their writing
35How to Expand Vocabulary Voracious reading – before, during, afterIntegrate with activationRelate to prior knowledgeTeach within contextActively involve studentsAll these based on reading research by Graves, Negy, Beck, Herman Instruction should be FOCUSED & INTENTIONALDirect instruction in vocabulary help students improve their ability to contruct meaning during readingHelping them to learn how to infer meaning helps them to determine word meaning during independent reading time
36Teaching Ideas for Expanding Vocabulary Voracious readingTune in to interesting wordsUse pictures & diagrams within textUse word parts to determine meaning of wordsUse prior knowledgeAsk someone to define it for youUse tools: dictionary, glossary, thesaurusHandout, refer to graphic organizers for vocabulary development
37What’s on my menu?New things I learned about expanding vocabulary . . .New things I learned about teaching in whole group . . .What do I want to do different this school year?
38How do I begin CAFÉ in my classroom? First 21 days