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Our Goal For Our Students All students will read at or above grade level by the end of the third grade.

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Presentation on theme: "Our Goal For Our Students All students will read at or above grade level by the end of the third grade."— Presentation transcript:

1 Our Goal For Our Students All students will read at or above grade level by the end of the third grade.

2 2 More than 40% of 4th graders are below the basic reading level, including 30% of the children in middle-class suburbs. For poor, minority children who attend low- performing urban schools, the incidence of reading failure is astronomical. African-American, Hispanic, ELL students, and those from impoverished homes have failure rates from 60 to 70 percent. National Assessment of Educational Progress, 1992, 1994 (Data on 4th Graders)

3 3 GOALS To gain knowledge of all the components of phonological awareness and decoding. To understand why teaching phonological awareness and decoding skills is important. To learn and practice effective strategies for teaching phonemic awareness and decoding strategies and skills

4 4 The strength of reading comprehension, like a rope, depends on different factors: Strength of the individual strands Strategic integration of all strands Effective binding or connecting of strands Comprehension PhonicsPhonological Awareness Vocabulary Structural Analysis Fluency

5 5 Why should you be knowledgeable about teaching phonemic awareness, phonics, and structural analysis skills and strategies?

6 6 Learning to read is not natural or easy for most children. Reading is an acquired skill. American Federation of Teachers 1999

7 7 Why Teach Phonemic Awareness & Decoding Well designed and delivered phonemic awareness and decoding instruction is necessary, but not sufficient. To facilitate reading, teachers must provide a program that integrates knowledge of the alphabetic principle, teaching for meaning, and opportunities to practice.

8 8 Looking At The Evidence That direct instruction in alphabet coding facilitates early reading acquisition is one of the most well established conclusions in all behavioral science. (Stanovich, 1994) Systematic phonics instruction produced significantly greater growth than non-phonics instruction in younger childrens reading comprehension. (National Reading Panel, 2000)

9 9 Looking At The Evidence Older struggling readers benefit from systematic & explicit decoding instruction that focuses on teaching high utility skills and correcting non-functional strategies. (Hasbrouck, 2003) Poorly developed word recognition skills are the most persuasive and debilitating source of reading challenges. (Adams, 1990, Perfetti, 1985, Share & Stanovich, 1995) The ability to decode long words increases the qualitative differences between good and poor readers. (Perfetti, 1986)

10 10 Explicit Instruction Model Lead Test Corrective Feedback

11 11 Systematic Instruction A thoughtful plan and purpose for instruction includes: Scope- Key skills identified. Sequence- The order in which skills are introduced. (Hasbrouck, 2003)


13 13 Scaffolding Phonics Instruction Even well-designed phonemic awareness and decoding programs may not get all students to grade level so scaffolding is often necessary. When well-designed materials are not available, teachers must have the knowledge to provide students with strategies and skills to efficiently decode and become successful readers.

14 14 How To Scaffold Decoding Instruction Teach in sequence Read and practice Begin with common high frequency items

15 15 Integration of Reading Phonemic Awareness Blending Segmenting Letter Sounds Sounding out Sight Reading Letter Sounds Regular Word Reading Reading in Text Irregular Word Reading Advanced Word Recognition Skills Advanced Reading in Text Fluency K12345 Prompted Independent Reading Less Complex More Complex Letter Combinations Structural Contextual Decodable Less Decodable Wide Reading Complex vowel combinations

16 16 When Should Phonics Instruction Begin? Although conventional wisdom has suggested that kindergarten students might not be ready for phonics, this assumption was not supported by data. The effects of systematic, early phonics instruction were significant and substantial in kindergarten and first grade, indicating that systematic phonics programs should be implemented at those grades. (National Reading Panel, 2000)

17 17 End of the Year Kindergarten Skills Alphabet Recognition Phonemic Awareness Common Consonants & Short Vowels Decoding in Isolation & Text Sight Words

18 Are They Ready To Read? YES!

19 19 Phonological Awareness is something you can do in the dark.

20 20 Phonological Awareness (PA) Anticipation Guide 1.PA can be taught and it helps children learn how to read and spell. 2.Older, disabled readers cannot benefit, in terms of reading, from PA instruction 3.Focusing on one or two PA skills produces larger effects than teaching many PA skills at once. 4.The results of PA research are not ready for implementation in the classroom.

21 21 Five Levels of Phonological Awareness Rhyming & Alliteration Sentence Segmenting Syllable Blending & Segmenting On set- Rime Blending & Segmenting Phoneme Blending & Segmenting Phonemic Awareness

22 22 Phonological Awareness: Theory Phonological Awareness: Is a primary indicator of early reading success Is acquired through a continuum of skills Needs to be taught explicitly first, then in context National Reading Panel, 2000 and Snow, et al, 1998

23 23 Phonological Awareness Helps Young Students Understand that spoken language is made up of separate words, words are made up of syllables, and words can be broken down into separate sounds, Read and spell words, Grasp how the alphabetic system works, Move from sounds to letters (preparation for phonics instruction).

24 24 What is a phoneme? The smallest part of spoken language that makes a difference in the meaning of words. To learn an alphabetic script, children must learn to attend to that which they have learned not to attend to. Adams,1990

25 25 Why Teach Phonemic Awareness? Helps children learn to read, Help children learn to spell, Facilitates childrens learning of the alphabetic principle by drawing their attention to the sounds that are related to individual letters.

26 26 How Do We Teach Phonemic Awareness? Manipulate phonemes by using the letters of the alphabet. Focus on only one or two types of phoneme manipulation, rather than several types. Skill learning takes place prior and during reading instruction.

27 27 Effective Phonemic Awareness Instruction Teaches students to manipulate phonemes by: Blending Segmentation Phoneme Counting Phoneme Deletion What rhymes with cat? What word is this …/sh/ /oe/? How many sounds are in the word box? What sounds do you hear in bus? What is left if the /t/ sound were taken from cart? Rhyming

28 28 IMPORTANT!!!!! Initial instruction is auditory followed by association of sounds to letters. Teach phonemic awareness in conjunction with letter names. Focus on one or two skills at a time. Tailor instructional time to students needs based on assessments. Some children will need more instruction than others. National Reading Panel, 2000


30 30 Decoding The ability to utilize letter-sound associations and structural elements to determine the pronunciation of unknown words.

31 31 Strategies For Teaching Decoding Phonic Analysis Structural Analysis Contextual Analysis

32 32

33 33 PHONICS Approaches in which systematic code instruction is included along with the reading of meaningful connected text result in superior achievement overall for both low-readiness and better prepared students. (Adams, 1990)

34 34 What Is Phonics? Teaching students the relationship between the sounds they hear and the letters that represent those sounds.

35 35 Why Is Phonics Instruction Important? Significantly improves word recognition and spelling, Improves reading comprehension, Helps children from various social and economic levels, (Put Reading First, 2001)

36 36 Why Is Phonics Instruction Important? (CONTINUED) Benefits children who are having difficulty learning to read and who are at risk for developing future reading problems, More effective than non-systematic or no phonics instruction. (Put Reading First, 2001)

37 37 Effective Phonics Instruction Early Systematic Explicit Application of Skills (Pikulski, 2001)

38 38 Phonic Analysis Letter-sound associations consonant & vowel letters consonant combinations vowel combinations Segmenting & Blending Sight Words

39 39 Structural Analysis Inflectional Endings Prefixes Suffixes Root Word Contractions Compound Words Onset-rime Multisyllabic

40 40 Contextual Analysis Used For Irregular Words Syntax (word order) Semantics (word meaning)

41 41 English Language Learners Some languages do not share the same system –Alphabetic( English, German, Spanish, Russian), Logographic (Chinese), Syllabic (Japanese) Some phonemes are not represented in ELLs native language Not all languages share the same linguistic characteristics –b,c,d,f,l.m.p,q,s,and t similar in English / Spanish –Vowels are more challenging PA and Phonics instruction can begin before ELLs have achieved oral language proficiency

42 42 Struggling Learners Limited experience and exposure with language play. Skills that prevent poor reading can be taught but they need to be taught early in school. Early intervention is the key to reading success.

43 43 How Do We Support Struggling Learners? Explicit instruction is crucial. Activities that involve segmenting and blending phonemes, sound symbol relationships, songs, poems are important. The use of background knowledge helps bridge students understanding of words in the text. Develop meaning for words while tying in PA and phonics for increased success.

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