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Witchcraft in the 17th Century

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Presentation on theme: "Witchcraft in the 17th Century"— Presentation transcript:

1 Witchcraft in the 17th Century

2 And now moving on …

3 The Thirty Years War ( )


5 Characteristics of the Thirty Years War
The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground. Began in 1618, ended period of no religious warfare that had lasted since 1555’s Peace of Augsburg. At the beginning  it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants (militant Calvinists). At the end  it was Habsburg power that was threatened. Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.

6 The Bohemian Phase: 1618-1622 Ferdinand II inherited Bohemia.
The Bohemians hated him, tried to re-Catholicize Bohemia. Ferdinand refused to tolerate Protestants. Defenestration of Prague May, 1618 Bohemia named a new king, Frederick V, head of Protestant Union.

7 The Bohemian Phase: 1618-1622 Ferdinand II becomes Holy Roman Emperor.
Frederick V defeated by Ferdinand II at the Battle of White Mountain, near Prague, 1622. Frederick V lost his land, the Spanish invaded and took the west while Maximilian of Bavaria took the rest. Ferdinand II reestablished, established Catholicism as sole religion. But… The rebellion in Bohemia inspired others.

8 Bohemian Phase

9 The Danish Phase: King Christian IV of Denmark got involved in support of Protestants, leads army into north Germany. Anti-Habsburg/Catholic alliance with United Provinces of England. Ferdinand II tried to end all resistance. Ferdinand II gave Albrecht von Wallenstein the army. Wallenstein repeatedly defeated Protestants in north, despite their strong support. Edict of Restitution (1629): Restored to Catholics all lands lost since 1552. Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights. German princes feared Ferdinand/sudden Habsburg growth  he fired Wallenstein in effort to calm them.

10 Danish Phase

11 Albrecht von Wallenstein

12 The Swedish Phase: 1630-1635 France & Sweden now get involved.
Both want to stop Habsburg power. Sweden led the charge. France provided support. Gustavus Adolphus invaded the HR Empire. Devout Lutheran, excellent military leader. Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein. Swedish advance (initially successful) was stopped, King Adolphus killed at Battle of Lutzen. German princes still feared Ferdinand II. Wallenstein assassinated in 1634 to appease them. Swedes pushed out of south Germany.

13 Swedish Phase

14 Gustavus Adolphus

15 The French Phase: 1635-1648 France & Sweden switched roles.
All countries in Europe now participated. Religious significance lessened, Catholic French working with Protestant Swedes vs. Catholic Habsburgs of Germany and Spain. French victory at Battle of Rocroi, maintained momentum from This phase was most destructive! German towns decimated. Agriculture collapsed  famine resulted. 8 million dead  1/3 of the population [from 21 million in 1618 to 13.5 million in 1648] Caused massive inflation. Trade was crippled throughout Europe.

16 Loss of German Lives in 30 Years’ War

17 The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Political Provisions Each Ger. prince became free from any kind of control by the HR Emperor. The United Provinces [Dutch Neths.] became officially independent  so part remained Sp. possession. France got most of the German-speaking province of Alsace. Cities of Metz, Toul, Verdun. Sweden  got lands in North Germany on the Baltic & Black Sea coasts. Switzerland became totally independent of the HR Emperor  Swiss Confederation. Sweden won a voice in the Diet of the HR Emp. Brandenburg (German State) got important territory on North Sea & in central Germany.

18 The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Religious Provisions Calvinists would have the same privileges as the Lutherans had in the Peace of Augsburg. The ruler of each state could determine its official religion, BUT [except in the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs], he must permit freedom of private worship. Habsburg emperor reduced to figurehead by HRE Religion and politics now clearly separate

19 Treaty of Westphalia (1648)


21 Nobody Was Happy! Many Protestants felt betrayed.
The pope denounced it. Only merit  it ended the fighting in a war that became intolerable! For the next few centuries, this war was blamed for everything that went wrong in Central Europe.

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