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Witchcraft in the 17 th Century

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1 Witchcraft in the 17 th Century

2 And now moving on …

3 The Thirty Years War ( )

4

5  The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground.  Began in 1618, ended period of no religious warfare that had lasted since 1555’s Peace of Augsburg.  At the beginning  it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants (militant Calvinists).  At the end  it was Habsburg power that was threatened.  Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in Characteristics of the Thirty Years War

6  Ferdinand II inherited Bohemia.  The Bohemians hated him, tried to re- Catholicize Bohemia.  Ferdinand refused to tolerate Protestants.  Defenestration of Prague  May, 1618  Bohemia named a new king, Frederick V, head of Protestant Union. The Bohemian Phase:

7  Ferdinand II becomes Holy Roman Emperor.  Frederick V defeated by Ferdinand II at the Battle of White Mountain, near Prague,  Frederick V lost his land, the Spanish invaded and took the west while Maximilian of Bavaria took the rest.  Ferdinand II reestablished, established Catholicism as sole religion. But…  The rebellion in Bohemia inspired others. The Bohemian Phase:

8 Bohemian Phase

9  King Christian IV of Denmark got involved in support of Protestants, leads army into north Germany. Anti- Habsburg/Catholic alliance with United Provinces of England.  Ferdinand II tried to end all resistance.  Ferdinand II gave Albrecht von Wallenstein the army.  Wallenstein repeatedly defeated Protestants in north, despite their strong support.  Edict of Restitution (1629):  Restored to Catholics all lands lost since  Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights.  German princes feared Ferdinand/sudden Habsburg growth  he fired Wallenstein in effort to calm them. The Danish Phase:

10 Danish Phase

11 Albrecht von Wallenstein

12  France & Sweden now get involved.  Both want to stop Habsburg power.  Sweden led the charge.  France provided support.  Gustavus Adolphus invaded the HR Empire.  Devout Lutheran, excellent military leader.  Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein.  Swedish advance (initially successful) was stopped, King Adolphus killed at Battle of Lutzen.  German princes still feared Ferdinand II.  Wallenstein assassinated in 1634 to appease them. Swedes pushed out of south Germany. The Swedish Phase:

13 Swedish Phase

14 Gustavus Adolphus

15  France & Sweden switched roles.  All countries in Europe now participated.  Religious significance lessened, Catholic French working with Protestant Swedes vs. Catholic Habsburgs of Germany and Spain.  French victory at Battle of Rocroi, maintained momentum from  This phase was most destructive!  German towns decimated.  Agriculture collapsed  famine resulted.  8 million dead  1/3 of the population [from 21 million in 1618 to 13.5 million in 1648]  Caused massive inflation.  Trade was crippled throughout Europe. The French Phase:

16 Loss of German Lives in 30 Years ’ War

17  Political Provisions  Each Ger. prince became free from any kind of control by the HR Emperor.  The United Provinces [Dutch Neths.] became officially independent  so part remained Sp. possession.  France got most of the German-speaking province of Alsace. Cities of Metz, Toul, Verdun.  Sweden  got lands in North Germany on the Baltic & Black Sea coasts.  Switzerland became totally independent of the HR Emperor  Swiss Confederation.  Sweden won a voice in the Diet of the HR Emp.  Brandenburg (German State) got important territory on North Sea & in central Germany. The Peace of Westphalia (1648)

18  Religious Provisions  Calvinists would have the same privileges as the Lutherans had in the Peace of Augsburg.  The ruler of each state could determine its official religion, BUT [except in the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs], he must permit freedom of private worship.  Habsburg emperor reduced to figurehead by HRE  Religion and politics now clearly separate The Peace of Westphalia (1648)

19 Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

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21  Many Protestants felt betrayed.  The pope denounced it.  Only merit  it ended the fighting in a war that became intolerable!  For the next few centuries, this war was blamed for everything that went wrong in Central Europe. Nobody Was Happy!


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