5Characteristics of the Thirty Years War The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground.Began in 1618, ended period of no religious warfare that had lasted since 1555’s Peace of Augsburg.At the beginning it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants (militant Calvinists).At the end it was Habsburg power that was threatened.Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.
6The Bohemian Phase: 1618-1622 Ferdinand II inherited Bohemia. The Bohemians hated him, tried to re-Catholicize Bohemia.Ferdinand refused to tolerate Protestants.Defenestration of Prague May, 1618Bohemia named a new king, Frederick V, head of Protestant Union.
7The Bohemian Phase: 1618-1622 Ferdinand II becomes Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick V defeated by Ferdinand II at the Battle of White Mountain, near Prague, 1622.Frederick V lost his land, the Spanish invaded and took the west while Maximilian of Bavaria took the rest.Ferdinand II reestablished, established Catholicism as sole religion. But…The rebellion in Bohemia inspired others.
9The Danish Phase:King Christian IV of Denmark got involved in support of Protestants, leads army into north Germany. Anti-Habsburg/Catholic alliance with United Provinces of England.Ferdinand II tried to end all resistance.Ferdinand II gave Albrecht von Wallenstein the army.Wallenstein repeatedly defeated Protestants in north, despite their strong support.Edict of Restitution (1629):Restored to Catholics all lands lost since 1552.Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights.German princes feared Ferdinand/sudden Habsburg growth he fired Wallenstein in effort to calm them.
12The Swedish Phase: 1630-1635 France & Sweden now get involved. Both want to stop Habsburg power.Sweden led the charge.France provided support.Gustavus Adolphus invaded the HR Empire.Devout Lutheran, excellent military leader.Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein.Swedish advance (initially successful) was stopped, King Adolphus killed at Battle of Lutzen.German princes still feared Ferdinand II.Wallenstein assassinated in 1634 to appease them. Swedes pushed out of south Germany.
15The French Phase: 1635-1648 France & Sweden switched roles. All countries in Europe now participated.Religious significance lessened, Catholic French working with Protestant Swedes vs. Catholic Habsburgs of Germany and Spain.French victory at Battle of Rocroi, maintained momentum fromThis phase was most destructive!German towns decimated.Agriculture collapsed famine resulted.8 million dead 1/3 of the population [from 21 million in 1618 to 13.5 million in 1648]Caused massive inflation.Trade was crippled throughout Europe.
17The Peace of Westphalia (1648) Political ProvisionsEach Ger. prince became free from any kind of control by the HR Emperor.The United Provinces [Dutch Neths.] became officially independent so part remained Sp. possession.France got most of the German-speaking province of Alsace. Cities of Metz, Toul, Verdun.Sweden got lands in North Germany on the Baltic & Black Sea coasts.Switzerland became totally independent of the HR Emperor Swiss Confederation.Sweden won a voice in the Diet of the HR Emp.Brandenburg (German State) got important territory on North Sea & in central Germany.
18The Peace of Westphalia (1648) Religious ProvisionsCalvinists would have the same privileges as the Lutherans had in the Peace of Augsburg.The ruler of each state could determine its official religion, BUT [except in the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs], he must permit freedom of private worship.Habsburg emperor reduced to figurehead by HREReligion and politics now clearly separate
21Nobody Was Happy! Many Protestants felt betrayed. The pope denounced it.Only merit it ended the fighting in a war that became intolerable!For the next few centuries, this war was blamed for everything that went wrong in Central Europe.