The Players (Everyone except England) ) HRE (Bohemia)--thats where it starts Habsburgs- Catholics – Catholic League of German States Protestant Union Denmark Sweden France Spain/Portugal- United under Philip II Netherlands Sweden
Defenestration- Phase 1 HRE Seven Electors –Four Catholic, Three Protestant (2 of whom were Calvinists) Peace of Augsburg Archduke Ferdinand (Habsburg) as King of Bohemia (Habsburgs gained Hungary and Bohemia in 16C) limits Protestantism Retaliation->Protestants toss out Catholic leaders from window->no one dies! Bohemians name their own King (Frederick)
Part 2 Multinational conflict –Ferdinand gets Philip IV (Spain) helpremember their both Habsurgs and both ardent Catholics! Wallenstein- lapsed Protestant helps Ferdinand defeat Bohemians - White Mountain- Protestants Crushed!
A not very great Dane! Phase II 1625-1629 Denmark –Christian IV Hanseatic League in decline- focus is more southerly Christian IV takes the mantle for Protestantism –Rules a territory w/in HRE –Denmarks little help- a troop of English and Catholic France and Dutch provides some $$$ Catholic France helping Protestant Danes??? Wallenstein defeats Christian IV More land lost to HRE and Catholicism
A Swede Victory! Phase III 1630-1635 Gustav II- military genius? Baltic Power, expand power and defend Protestantism –Poland/Lithuania falling apart- power vacuum France helped defray costs Swedes gain->Gustav II dies (Battle of Lutzen, near Leipzig) New Treaty->Protestant gains, Swedish gains
Finally its Frances turn (1635- 1648)- Phase IV France allied w/Dutch and Swedes –Dutch??? New comer on the block Swedes and French gain more ground –War becomes more political less religious Danes switch sides, fight and lose to Swedes Emperor Dies, Richelieu Dies and soon Cardinal Mazarin (France) begins movement towards Peace (Hey wheres England in all this stuff?)
Sweden Gets Involved 17C Powerhouse –Poland/Lithuania on decline Power of the Baltic –Gustav IV? Effective King Saw expansion into mainland Europe- Prussian Ports –Dies in the Battle of Lutzen –Swedes gain substantial swathes of land
Treaty of Westphalia So Whats the Big Deal? Conference- w/all participants –Diplomacy previously bilateral –Sovereignty Religious Toleration??? HRE lost- still in existence but w/limited meaning Brandenburg (who?) gains France gains Alsace- root for lots of fights! Sweden also gains- Baltic Power Spain- In significant decline Dutch gain independence (took 80 YRS!!!) R.C. Church lost big
Devastating War Millions Killed- Plague Like ¼ to 1/3 deadsome areas…higher! –Areas tend to be Germanic and Bohemia Consolidation? Sort of350 autonomous areas->about 100 Empowerment of local nobles and princes, intro&exp. serfdom Who benefitted?
Europe mid 17C (for future discussions) France –Fronde followed by the Sun King Spain –Portugal returns as separate country England –Puritan Uprising and a whole lot more! Decline HRE-> Itchings of Prussia and Brandenburg-> A Power to Come Amsterdam- Economic Powerhouse Sweden- Political Powerhouse Russia - Emerging from Chaos New World Colonized