Presentation on theme: "Protection of Health and Environment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Protection of Health and Environment Aim: To explain the process of risk management and how its implementation can promote or protect health
2 The tendency towards a dual economy Galbraith argued that the economy and its organisations develop dual tendenciesThe central economy is planned and primarily reflects the interests of the power eliteIn the competitive periphery prices remain paramount (the poor work in the periphery both globally and in regard to the individual organization, where they are a casual labour force)The role of govt. should be to bring these two economic sectors into alignment
3 Environmental health risk factors Air , water, food qualityNoise, toxic and non toxic waste disposalBuilding standardsNatural disasters, war, crimePest infestations; pesticide and herbicide residuesDegradation of natural resources
4 Personal lifestyle health risk factors SmokingAlcohol abuseLack of exercise, obesitySexual practicesSafety practicesImportance of health related knowledge
5 Major risks of premature death internationally MalnutritionPoor water supply, sanitation, hygieneUnsafe sexTobacco useAlcoholOccupation
6 World Health Organisation Established 1948‘Health for All by the Year 2000’ was goal established in 1978The Alma-Ata declaration: 134 nations agreed that health is a fundamental human right and the highest possible level of health is a most important world wide social goalPrimary care first priority
7 International context of national risk management 1978: Alma-Ata declaration established health as a fundamental human right and stated the highest possible level of health is a most important world goal1986: Ottawa Charter says supports include peace, shelter, food, income, a stable economic system, sustainable resources, social justice and equity
8 Ninth General Program of Work of the WHO (1996-2000) Ten goals and targetsGoal 1 is to increase the span of healthy life for all people in such a way that the health disparities between social groups decreaseTargets: Life expectancy at birth will not be less than 60 in any countryThe difference between highest and lowest group life expectancy will reduce by 50%
9 WHO Governing Body is World Health Assembly (170 nations) WHO helps countries reinforce their health systems by building up infrastructuresPromotes appropriate research (malaria, leprosy, other tropic disease control)Safe drinking water programsImmunisation programsOther appropriate programs; HIV/AIDS; river blindness, etc.
10 WHO Strategy Education about main health problems Proper food supply and nutritionSafe water and sanitationMaternal and child health (family planning)Immunisation against infectious diseasesPrevention and control of local diseasesTreatment of common diseases and injuriesProvision of essential drugs
11 International context of risk management 1992: UN Declaration on Environment and Development: Humans are at the centre of concern for sustainable development and are entitled to a health and productive life in harmony with nature.1997: WHO called for development of health promotion as a result of cooperation between govt. and private sector
12 International context of risk management Post 1989: Global agreement on the need for free tradeAPEC principles: Equal treatment; access to information; need for cost-effective dispute resolution; no relaxation of health, safety and environmental regulations to attract investmentAust. Competition Policy Reform Act
13 Australian competition Policy Reform Level playing field of national standards for health and environment protectionEqual competition between private and public sector service providersPerfect information: necessary for competition, risk identification and control; scientific advance; democratic accountability
14 Risk management standard (AS/NZ 4360:1999) A logical and systematic method of identifying, analysing, assessing, treating, monitoring and communicating risks associated with any activity in a way that will enable organisations to minimise losses and maximise opportunities.
15 Risk Management Process (Communicate and consult) Establish the context(strategic, organisational, etc.)(baseline data)Identify the risksAnalyse and prioritise risks(severity/frequency)Treat risks (reduction strategies)Evaluate outcome (performance indicators)
16 Risk management consistent with: Risk identification and control requirements of state OHS ActsHealth promotion: ‘preventing the causes of determinants of illness; evidence based practice; community participation in decisions affecting health’ (NHMRC)Duty of care of health practitionerQuality mgt. (ISO )Environmental mgt. (ISO 14004)
17 Risk management can be carried out: In a global, national, regional, industry, or organisational contextRisk management programs can aim at promoting the health of populations, consumers, clients, or workers
18 Health Aims and Objectives The choice of a health program aim should relate closely to the overall aims of the organisation and assist in their achievement.The aim needs to be clear and measurableThe objectives support the aim and should relate closely to it
19 Identification of health risk leads to program aims: The aim is based on the prior identification and prioritization of health risk, so the gathering of data to aid the identification of risk is imperativeBaseline data collected at commencement of the project is compared to data collected at the end of the project to see if improvement has occurred
20 Australian Health Goals Developed by Commonwealth and State Ministers Access to high quality health care services regardless of financial status and place of residenceCost-effective health improvement through a prevention related approachAccess to information which will enable individual Australians to make informed decisions (treatment outcome data)
21 Aust. National Health Priorities Cardiovascular diseaseCancerInjuryMental healthAboriginal health (plus Diabetes)
22 National Health GoalsGoal is a broad statement: ‘To reduce the impact of coronary heart disease on the health of all Australians’Target: ‘Reduction of x% in admissions to hospital over z yearsStrategy: Actions to achieve the goalA performance indicator is a measurable way of assessing progress (e.g. admissions to hospital)
23 Criteria for Setting Goals The public health significance of the goalThe ability to effectively implement practices to achieve itThe ability to measure its achievementImportance of benchmarking (performance comparison based on consistent international and national data collection)
24 From global to local approaches to sustainable development Community development should be based on the identification of major health and environment problems on an appropriate regional basis in order to prioritize and find solutions to them. State of the Environment Report ( ) from the UN Economic and Social Commission provides provides a broad context.
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