6Current Approaches to Health Promotion Setting (e. g Current Approaches to Health Promotion Setting (e.g. workplace, school, community centre, etc.)Setting is seen as a place to reach people.Usually has a lifestyle emphasis as opposed to reorganizing the workplace to increase control and health.Can involve increasing control by participants of local conditions.
7Current Approaches to Health Promotion Community Mobilization (e. g Current Approaches to Health Promotion Community Mobilization (e.g. heart health, smoking cessation)Usually involves focus on an expert-decided problem or issue.Assumed to be an equal partnership between community and experts or authorities.
8Current Approaches to Health Promotion Community Development (e. g Current Approaches to Health Promotion Community Development (e.g. participatory research )Usually involves focus on a community-decided problem or issue.Control is assumed to rest with the community and its members rather than with experts or authorities
9Current Approaches to Health Promotion Healthy Cities/Healthy Communities Focus on municipal governanceBroad definition of health and its determinantsCitizen participation is importantCareful monitoring of progress
11Healthy Communities in Ontario Basic Princples I Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.Social, environmental and economic factors are important determinants of human health and are inter-related.People cannot achieve their fullest potential unless they are able to take control of those things which determine their well-being.All sectors of the community are inter-related and share their knowledge, expertise and perspectives, working together to create a healthy community.
12Healthy Communities in Ontario Basic Principles II A Healthy Community process involves:wide community participationbroad involvement of all sectors of the communitylocal government commitmentcreation of healthy public policies
13Healthy Communities in Ontario Basic Principles III Qualities of a Healthy Community include:clean and safe physical environmentpeace, equity and social justiceadequate access to food, water, shelter, income, safety, work and recreation for alladequate access to health care servicesopportunities for learning and skill developmentstrong, mutually supportive relationships and networksworkplaces that are supportive of individual and family well-beingwide participation of residents in decision-makingstrong local cultural and spiritual heritagediverse and vital economyprotection of the natural environmentresponsible use of resources to ensure long term sustainability
14Current Approaches to Health Promotion Health Protection (e. g Current Approaches to Health Promotion Health Protection (e.g., pollution control, seat belts)
18Canadian Government Statements on Health and Health Promotion I All policies which have a direct bearing on health need to be coordinated. The list is long and includes, among others, income security, employment, education, housing, business, agriculture, transportation, justice and technology.-- Achieving Health For All: A Framework for Health Promotion, J. Epp. Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada, 1986.
19Canadian Government Statements on Health and Health Promotion II There is strong evidence indicating that factors outside the health care system significantly affect health. These “determinants of health” include income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, social environments, biology and genetic endowment, personal health practices and coping skills, healthy child development, health services, gender and culture.-- Taking Action on Population Health: A Position Paper for Health Promotion and Programs Branch Staff. Ottawa: Health Canada, 1998.
20Canadian Government Statements on Health and Health Promotion III In the case of poverty, unemployment, stress, and violence, the influence on health is direct, negative and often shocking for a country as wealthy and as highly regarded as Canada.-- The Statistical Report on the Health of Canadians. Ottawa: Health Canada, 1998.
23Reflection: The Role of Values in Health Promotion Does choice of health promotion model and approach by an individual, organization, or government reflect particular individual and societal values?David Seedhouse argues that every health promotion activity has an underlying political ideology:All health promotion ‑‑ even the most routine andmundane ‑‑ is based on one political philosophy oranother.
25Class Exercise: How Should We Reduce the Incidence of Heart Disease? You have been chosen to reduce the incidence of heart disease among Canadians.You have also been provided with limitless resources and total power.
26Class Exercise: How Should We Reduce the Incidence of Heart Disease? What would you do?What grounds (evidence) do you have for choosing this approach?Where did you get this evidence from?What does your choice say about you and the way you and others think about the causes of heart disease and how it can be reduced?