2OTTAWA CHARTER DEFINITION OF HEALTH PROMOTION Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. To reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment.Health is, therefore, seen as a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.Therefore, health promotion is not just the responsibility of the health sector, but goes beyond healthy life-styles to well-being.
3Definition of Health Promotion: American Journal of Health Promotion "Health promotion is the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health. Optimal health is defined as a balance of physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and intellectual health. Lifestyle change can be facilitated through a combination of efforts to enhance awareness, change behavior and create environments that support good health practices. Of the three, supportive environments will probably have the greatest impact in producing lasting change". (American Journal of Health Promotion, 1989,3,3,5)
4The first International Conference on Health Promotion, meeting in Ottawa 21st day of November 1986Reunited government health representatives from nearly all the world's countries. The conference led to the development of the 'Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion'.
5Built on the progress made through the Declaration on Primary Health Care at Alma-Ata, the World Health Organization's Targets for Health for All documentOttawa Charter signaled a recognition of the many aspects and influences concerning health and illness, not only as applied to industrialized but also, importantly, in the so-called 'developing countries' of the world
6The Ottawa CharterOutlined the five key elements included in health promotion:Healthy Public Policy.Personal Skills Development.Community Participation.Healthy and Supportive Environments.Re-organization of Health Services.
7Improvement in Health Requires the following basic prerequisites (Ottawa Charter) ADVOCATEENABLEMEDIATE
8AdvocatePolitical, economic, social, cultural, environmental, behavioral and biological factors can all favor health or be harmful to it.Health promotion action aims at making these conditions favourable through advocacy for health.
9ENABLE Health promotion focuses on achieving equity in health. Health promotion action aims at reducing differences in current health status and ensuring equal opportunities and resources to enable all people to achieve their fullest health potential.Includes a secure foundation in a supportive environment, access to information, life skills and opportunities for making healthy choices.People cannot achieve their fullest health potential unless they are able to take control of those things which determine their health.Must apply equally to women and men.
10Health Promotion Action Means Build Public Health PolicyCreate Supportive EnvironmentsStrengthen Community ActionsDevelop Personal SkillsRe-orient Health ServicesMoving into the future
12Public Health PolicyInvolvement in the development of National Eye Care Plans that defines approaches, targets and outcomes. Ensure that health promotion strategies are incorporated into all blindness prevention activitiesEnsure that government policy enables theenhancement of refractive error and low vision in particular and other causes of blindness in general but incorporating health promotion into the overall strategyResearch into impact of health promotion efforts, cost recovery programs and sustainable programs in refractive errors and low visionMonitoring and Evaluation
13Personal Skills Development Incorporating Health Promotion training into community eye health and public health programs at a undergraduate level.Health Promotion workshops for optometrists to empower them to incorporate health promotion strategies into their programs.
14Community Participation Develop strategies to involve communities in the planning, implementation and evaluation of programsInvolvement of communities in eye care programs such as running of optical shops, assisting with screening etc
15Benefits of community participation The increased sense of responsibility and control over eye care programs.Empowerment of individuals through increased knowledge, awareness and the development of new skills through eg. lab technicians, administratorsTheir understanding of local conditions assists in preventing and solving problems.Appropriate and effective incorporation of traditional, indigenous experience in eye care service delivery.
16Supportive Environments Be part of efforts to create and environment that prevents eye diseasesSupport/Initiate efforts for the provision of running water to prevent trachoma and other infectious diseaseSupport/Initiate efforts to reduce unnecessary exposure to Ultra Violet light
17Re-Organization of Health Services Ensure that optometric services are incorporated into existing public health servicesContribute to the development of integrated eye care delivery systems that promote the effective use of limited resources and which incorporate the involvement of communities and the inclusion of efforts to promote good health
18ConclusionHealth Promotion Affords Optometrists an opportunity to break out of a narrow clinical approach to eye care and to recognize the team role in comprehensive eye care services, particularly the most important member of the team, the community