Presentation on theme: "AN INTRODUCTION TO SPHERE AND THE EMERGENCY CONTEXT"— Presentation transcript:
1AN INTRODUCTION TO SPHERE AND THE EMERGENCY CONTEXT SESSION 16
2Objectives By the end of the lesson, the learner should Have a basic understanding of SphereBe able to define the fundamental principles of the Humanitarian CharterDistinguish Minimum standards from key indicators and guidance notes.
3Humanitarian Challenges Today The ever-increasing complexity of disaster responseAn increasing number of disastersAn increasing number of humanitarian actors that define success in different ways, depending on who they are accountable to.
4What is Sphere ProjectThe Sphere Project was created in response to this need for change - as an open and collaborative initiative to improve the quality and accountability of disaster response.It was conceived with the aim of promoting humanitarian action in an effective and accountable way.
5The Sphere Project can be viewed as a process that has: Argued for the universal right of all disaster-affected people to humanitarian assistanceAchieved NGO agreement on core principles and actionsCollected minimum programming standards for disasters from past lessons and experienceAchieved consensus on technical standards and indicators
6The Sphere Consultation Process 1997: Initial consultation among 4000 people2000: Sphere handbook launched.2004: Revised edition of Sphere handbook launchedTo-date, 80 countries and 400 organizations have signed up.
7Outputs of The Sphere Project Sphere handbook is the main output. It outlinesThe universal right of all disaster affected people to humanitarian assistanceMinimum programming standards and key indicators for disastersNGO agreement on core principles and actionsQuality of and accountability in humanitarian work
8The Sphere Handbook Comprises of The Humanitarian chapterThe Common Standards to all sectorsThe Technical Chapters. All these constituteMinimum StandardsKey IndicatorsGuidance notes
9Why is the Sphere Handbook Needed NGO concern with quality and accountabilityHistoric practice is no longer sufficient i.e.Increasing complexity of disastersNumbers of disasters increasingChanging nature of humanitarian community and increasing diversityIncreasing number of actors with different measures of successPost-Rwanda 1994Multi-donor evaluation ‘Unnecessary deaths’
10The Humanitarian Charter: Provides some critical reflection on the common values and principles of the humanitarian communityContains a commitment to promote the observance of fundamental humanitarian principles and an appreciation of the ethical obligations of humanitarians and their organizations. This reflectsA belief in the principle of humanityThe primacy of the humanitarian imperativeThe idea that our actions should be governed by that imperative
11The Humanitarian Charter also Clarifies roles and responsibilities of various actors as described in international law: e.g.Outlines commitment to achieving defined levels through the minimum standards based on the right to life with dignityAcknowledges that the fundamental accountability of humanitarian actors is to those people we seek to assist.
12The HC Fundamental Principles Right to life with Dignity - based on the international Human Rights LawThe distinction between combatants and non-combatants - based on the Geneva ConventionsThe Principle of non-refoulement – based on the international refugee law
13ExerciseA brief review of the ‘The Humanitarian Charter’… handout
14Humanitarian Charter - Conclusion The humanitarian charter provides the framework to convert the appreciation ofrights into action – and henceMinimum standards:Key indicatorsGuidance notes
15The Common Standards This chapter follows the ‘HC’ in the handbook These are Eight core ‘process and people’ standards that are relevant to each of the technical chapters that followThese standards outline common processes, such as assessments, response, targeting, monitoring and evaluation. There are also standards for working with people, including participation and aid worker competencies.
16Common Standard 1&2The disaster affected population participated in the assessment, design, implementation, monitoring & evaluation of the assistance programAssessments provide an understanding of the disaster situation & a clear analysis of threats to life, dignity, health & livelihoods to determine, in consultation with the relevant authorities, whether an external response is required and if so, the nature of the response.
17Common Standard 7&8No.7. Aid workers possess appropriate qualifications, attitudes and experience to plan and implement appropriate effective programmesNo. 8. Aid workers receive supervision and support to ensure effective implementation of humanitarian assistance programme.
18Exercise on common Stds. Review 2 key indicators under common standard No. 8 i.e. page 41
19The Technical Chapters There is general consensus that the following 4 Sectors are most crucial for the survival of disaster affected victimsWater supply, sanitation and hygiene promotionFood security, nutrition and food aidShelter, settlement and non-food itemsHealth services
20Technical chapters Cont. In each technical chapter, tools are provided in the form ofMinimum Standards andKey Indicators.
21Minimum Stds & Key Indicators Minimum Standards are universal goals that represent some of the components of a life with dignityKey indicators help agencies measure whether or not a standard is being met in practical, observable ways. There are various types of indicator in the handbook, primarily qualitative and quantitative.
22IndicatorsIndicators are tools used to measure: Outputs, outcomes& impacts of our programs and the processes usedUsing measurable indicators to quantify and qualify results is a key element in determining what has been achieved in a disaster response operation.Indicators:Facilitate program designHelp to establish a clear record of the logic behind a programProvide a means of measuring qualityPresent opportunities for collaborative and transparent projects
23Guidance NotesThese are specific points to consider when applying the standards & indicators in diff. situations, guidance on tackling practical difficulties, and advice on priority issues.They may also include critical issues relating to the standards or indicators, and describe dilemmas, controversies or gaps in current knowledge.
24ExerciseReview the handouts on ‘Minimum Stds’ & Key indicators for Assessment & Analysis of Food security and Nutrition.
25Application of SphereAs a reference for every stage of the disaster response project cycle e.g. assessment ques, benchmarks etc.As a technical reference toolThe technical rationale – since it avoids bias and inconsistencies in individual NGO guidelinesOpportunities to improve quality and performanceAn advocacy tool – for resources
26Objectives of the session By the end of the lesson, the learner shouldHave a basic understanding of Sphere Project (??)Be able to define the fundamental principles of the Humanitarian Charter (??)Distinguish Minimum standards from key indicators and guidance notes. (??)