Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Health Studies Health Promotion I"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Health Studies Health Promotion I Dennis RaphaelSchool of Health Policy and ManagementYork University, Toronto, Canada
2Overview of Today’s Presentation Differing Concepts of Health PromotionCanadian ContributionsThe Ottawa Charter for Health PromotionCurrent Approaches to Health PromotionReflection: The Role of ValuesClass Exercise: How Should We Reduce the Incidence of Heart Disease?
4Defining Health: The Medical Definition The normal physical state, i.e., the state of being whole and free from physical and mental disease or pain, so that the parts of the body can carry on their proper function.
6Defining Health: The World Health Organization Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.Health is a positive concept emphasizing personal resources, as well as physical capacities.
7Three Broad Concepts of Health Medical (Traditional)Behavioural (Lifestyle)Socio-Environmental (Structural)These approaches lead to different definitions of problems, different strategies, different target groups, and different people responsible for the activities of promoting health.
9Concepts of Health Promotion: Medical Approach I (Traditional, Biomedical) Health Concept is biomedical, absence of disease and/or disabilityLeading Health Problems defined in terms of disease categories and physiological risk factors such as physiological deviation from the norm: CVD, AIDS, diabetes, obesity, arthritis, mental disease, hypertension, etc.
10Concepts of Health Promotion: Medical Approach II Principal Strategies: surgical interventions, drug and other therapies, health care, medically managed health behaviour change (diet, exercise, patient education, patient compliance), screening for physiological and genetic risk factorsTarget: high risk individualsGeneral Approach: IndividualizedActors: physicians, nurses, allied health workers
12Concepts of Health Promotion: Behavioural Approach I (Lifestyle, Public Health) Health Concept is individualized, health as energy, functional ability, disease‑preventing lifestylesLeading Health Problems defined in terms of behavioural risk factors: smoking, poor eating habits, lack of fitness, drug abuse, alcohol abuse, poor stress coping, lack of lifeskills, etc.
13Concepts of Health Promotion: Behavioural Approach II Principal Strategies: health education, social marketing, advocacy for public policies supporting lifestyle choices (e.g. smoking bans, low fat meat production, bicycle paths, ad bans)Target: high risk groups, children and youthGeneral Approach: individualized, elements of societal focus as related to public policyActors: public health workers, illness‑related advocacy groups (e.g., Cancer Society), governments
15Concepts of Health Promotion: Socio-Environmental Approach I (Structural) Health Concept is a positive state defined in connectedness to one's family/friends/community, being in control, ability to do things that are important or have meaning, community and societal structures supporting human developmentLeading Health Problems defined in terms of psychosocial risk factors and socio‑environmental risk conditions: poverty, income gap, isolation, powerlessness, pollution, stressful environments, hazardous living and working conditions, etc.
16Concepts of Health Promotion: Socio-Environmental Approach II (Structural) Principal Strategies: small group development, community development, coalition building, political action and advocacy, societal changeTarget: high risk societal conditionsGeneral Approach: structural, focussed on organization of communities and society, development of just political/economic policiesActors: citizens, social development and welfare organizations, political movements and parties
17Canadian Contributions I Lalonde ReportA New Perspective on the Health of CanadiansHealth Field Concept:Human BiologyLifestyleEnvironmentHealth Care
19Canadian Contributions II Epp ReportAchieving Health for AllChallenges: Reducing inequities, increasing prevention, enhancing copingMechanisms: self care, mutual aid, and healthyenvironments.Strategies: public participation, strengthening services, coordinating healthy public policy
22Canadian Contributions III Healthy Cities Movement was developed in Toronto, and is now very strong in EuropeThe Healthy Cities approach incorporates a broad definition of health, one that emphasizes prevention of community problems and the development of people.Health encompasses all aspects of people's lives including housing, education, religion, employment , nutrition, leisure and recreation, health and medical care, good transportation, a clean and green environment, friendly people, and safe streets and parks that promote a Healthy City.
24The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion – World Health Organization, 1986 Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capacitiesHealth Promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their healthPrerequisites for Health are peace, shelter, education, food, income, stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice and equityHealth Promotion Actions are: building healthy public policy, creating supportive environments, strengthening community action, developing personal skills, reorienting health services