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EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Special Populations.

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Presentation on theme: "EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Special Populations."— Presentation transcript:

1 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Special Populations

2 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Lab Submission Changed from what was advertised last week Study break Either –hand in on day of regular lab and pick up that afternoon –All hand in Monday, pick up Friday –Hand in Friday week 13, pick up morning of exam

3 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Today Pregnant women Children Teenagers –girls Asthmatics Epileptics Diabetics Ex Phys in the primary school

4 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Demands on the body during pregnancy Foetus needs calories, nutrients, protein and a physiologically stable environment Blood volume increases % O2 uptake slightly higher HR rest and exercise Cardiac output higher at rest 1 st 2 trimesters, and then lower 3 rd trimester

5 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Safety precautions Need Dr’s permisson- full check up Concerns based around: –Increased body weight  additional discomfort/damage to joints –Inadequate availability of oxygen for exercising muscle and the foetus –Thermoregulation  Hyperthermia (Too hot) – may cause foetal distress or birth abnormalities –Increased uterine contraction –Joint laxity –Energy balance

6 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Discomfort Urinary frequency and incontinence Breast size and tenderness Back pain Centre of balance General fatigue

7 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance What can they do? Aerobic continuous exercise (walking, hiking, low impact aerobics, cycling, swimming, rowing etc) at 60=70% MHR for no longer than 45 min (15-20 = ideal) Weight supported exercise (swimming) has less potential for injury. Resistance exercise at low weight high reps (>10) within limited R.O.M Caution during stretching No supine exercise in 3 rd trimester No risk of falls No joint stress (jogging, tennis)

8 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Children

9 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Growth In females –Muscle mass increases 7 kg  23 kg –% Body fat increases 16%  23% In males, between the ages of 6 and 16 –Lungs grow which increases total lung capacity from 1937  5685 ml –Heart grows in weight from 95g to 258 g –Muscle mass increases

10 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Aerobic factors Heart rates – may be very high Breathing rate- up to 20 breaths/min more Ventilatory equivalent for oxygen- need to breathe more to get same amt oxygen

11 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Energy systems Muscular concentration of ATP is similar in children, adolescents, and adults The total reservoir of high energy phosphates is lower in children because of their smaller muscle mass relative to structure. In exercise, depletion of high-energy phosphates occurs at similar rates for children and adults.

12 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Anaerobic Capacity Children have a distinctly lower anaerobic capacity compared to adolescents and adults. low glycolytic capacity lower lactate production decreased buffer capacity decreased rates of glycogenolysis lower lactate threshold

13 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Thermoregulation Children are not as effective in dissipating heat as adults:  produce more heat relative to body mass  lower sweat rates at rest and during exercise  greater energy expenditure during exercise  lower cardiac output relative to metabolic intensity  rely more on convective heat loss than evaporative cooling

14 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Training Considerations Even when controlling for maturation, it is clear that children can adapt to endurance training Physiologic changes in children resulting from training and growth and maturation

15 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Benefits of exercise for children Caloric balance Stimulates growth hormones –Growth Hormone Mechanical stresses (overload) triggers musculoskeletal growth –Hypertrophy of muscle –Metabolic efficiency

16 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Adolescents Pubertal growth spurt

17 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Aerobic capacity Muscular concentration of ATP is similar in adolescents, and adults Adolescents have significantly lower muscle glycogen stores than adults and also are less capable of generating ATP. Young people do not have the same capabilities as adults to perform strenuous exercise for periods between 10 and 60 seconds. Gender-related differences -

18 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Strength training Resistance training in prepubertal subjects tends to cause increases in strength without increases in muscle size 30-40% gains in strength following an 8-12 week program (Payne, Morrow, Johnson., & Dalton, 1997) Resistance training effects can be found in young, adult, and aged populations. Girls have the potential to improve more than boys. [They start from a lower status.]

19 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Precautions with strength training Epiphyseal injuries- Adolescents should avoid competitive weight lifting, power lifting, body building, and maximal lifts until they reach physical and skeletal maturity (~ 17 females and 18.5 males) These are mostly caused by maximal lifts, improper technique and improper supervision Adolescents should use lower weights and higher reps rather than 3 or 4 reps of a % max weight

20 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Adolescent Females Runners Knee Widening of hips Menstruation

21 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Widening hips Broader hips  more steeply angled femurs may cause some girls to throw out their heels when running attention needs to be paid to running technique

22 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Runner’s knee

23 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Menstruation Cycle of menstruation involves constant flux of female steroid hormones These can have physiological responses on –Substrate utilisation –Electrolyte and water balance –Nervous system –Blood sugar –Circulation –RPE

24 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

25 Affect on performance % women reported decreased performance 13-43% reported increased performance (LeBrun et al., 1995) 11% increase in quadriceps and hand grip strength mid cycle (Sarwar et al., 1996) Need to consider stage of menstrual cycle when doing time trials Plan cycle around major events

26 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Special Populations

27 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Asthmatics Triggers: –Allergies –exercise, –aspirin, –dust, pollutants, –emotion  Mast cell (in resp tract) Reaction –Contraction of smooth muscle around bronchii –Swelling/inflammation mucosal cells –Hypersecretion mucous

28 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Prevention Avoid allergen Medication. Works by; –Inhibiting chemical mediator release (histamines etc) –Relax bronchiolar smooth muscle (most inhalers) –Block influx Ca to mast cell

29 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Epilepsy Epilepsy = brain disorder characterised by recurring seizures or fits caused by sudden flurries of electrochemical activity in the brain, which disrupt the ‘conversation’ between neurones

30 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Benefits of exercise for epileptics Heavy breathing associated with exercise stops the build-up of carbon dioxide in the blood (hypercapnia). Reduces stress – The release of serotonin may calm the brain. Concentration needed during sport may focus the brain so that seizures are less likely. The benefits of regular exercise, such as improved fitness and wellbeing, may contribute to a reduced seizure risk.

31 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Considerations Before starting any new exercise program, consult with your doctor or specialist. Avoid known seizure triggers. Always take your medication as prescribed and keep an adequate supply of medication on hand Make sure your sporting companions are aware of your condition and know what to do if you have a seizure. Always wear a medical alert bracelet. Wear protective gear appropriate to your sport, such as helmet or knee pads. Always wear a life jacket when involved in water sports. Let family or friends know your walking, jogging or exercise route before you leave and how long you will be out. Exercise may trigger a seizure- be careful!

32 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Avoiding seizures Drink plenty of water before, during and after exercise. Don’t push yourself to the point of physical exhaustion. If you are feeling very hot and tired, slow down or stop. Make sure you have at least two rest days every week. Make sure your diet is nutritionally adequate. Get plenty of rest and good quality sleep. Take all steps to avoid head injuries. Don’t abuse alcohol. Make sure you take your medication according to your doctor’s directions.

33 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Contraindicated Contact sports Scuba diving Bungee jumping Boxing Motor sports Horse riding Gymnastics Ice activities, such as skating or hockey Skiing solo water (sailing or wind surfing) or aerial sports (hang gliding & skydiving) High altitude activities such as mountain climbing.

34 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Type 2 diabetics Typically adult onset 90% of all diabetics Does not require insulin to be injected Control through food and exercise –Low fat diet Exercise is often recommended

35 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Exercise recommendations for Type 2 diabetics High frequency – 4-7 x p/week Achieve 1000 calorie loss Moderate starting intensity to avoid injury- walking is the best –Minimises hypoglycaemic response Buildup  maintain overload Motivation Carry emergency glucose

36 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Type 1 Diabetics Blood Glucose levels <4 mmol/L – Too low- give jelly beans/ juice etc 4-6 mmol/L- Average 12 mmol/L – Too high, but doesn’t require insulin yet 15 mmol/L- Too high- requires insulin

37 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Ex Phys in primary school How is all of this stuff relevant??

38 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Bigger kids Don’t assume they are unfit or unhealthy Discourage all forms of comparison between kids Vo2 max Psychological/ motivational factors PRE Thermoregulation Avoid bias Increase chances of success in all students –Pedometers –Strength

39 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Muscle strength Number of muscle fibres is fixed at birth 1 yr – adolescence = increases 3-fold through hypertrophy Increases in strength more likely than size Active muscles = greater increase Doesn’t mean lifting weights! Means weight bearing exercise- running, aerobics anything out of water And resistance exercise using body weight- push ups, sit ups, jumping etc

40 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Adaptations to exercise Increased endurance in children largely believed to be inherited rather than trained Same increases in lung volumes, plasma volume, left ventricular hypertrophy and vo2 max as adults. However these things also increase naturally with age and growth Therefore measurable increases in fitness may be a combination of both

41 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Heart rate Decrease in RHR with increased fitness same as in adults This activity allows kids to track the change in their hear rate, and you can explain what is happening as this occurs Left ventricle increases ability to pump blood around to the muscles Therefore it doesn’t have to pump as often to get the blood to go around So a decrease in RHR is a direct representation of your heart getting stronger!

42 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Fitness Testing? Don’t call it “fitness testing!!!” Focus on individual comparison and improvement Gain a holistic understanding of fitness Experience feeling of improving fitness Needs to be done correctly –Self Esteem –Ensure privacy- secret!

43 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance ACHPER AFEA Growth: Height and Weight, with Body Mass Index (BMI) calculated by the computer program. Cardiorespiratory Endurance: Multi-Stage Fitness Test and 1.6 km run/walk. Muscular Strength and Endurance: The Curl-up and the Basketball Throw. Muscle and Joint Flexibility: The Sit and Reach Tests and Shoulder Stretch.

44 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance

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46 Vertical jump

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48 Programmes Kids should be active for an hour a day Map out all school and after school activities to see if you are getting enough Ensure that it is private Suggest FUN stuff that counts as activity!

49 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Young kids

50 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Older kids

51 EDU2EXP Exercise & Performance Summary Need to consider individual populations Find out more information if student/client has anything Exam revision lecture next week


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