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How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools James F. Bogden National Association of State Boards of Education June 2003.

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Presentation on theme: "How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools James F. Bogden National Association of State Boards of Education June 2003."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools James F. Bogden National Association of State Boards of Education June 2003

2 Objectives >Learn who are the decision makers at various levels of the education system >Identify strategies for engaging with and influencing education decision makers >Identify strategies for improving school health-related policies and practices >Become aware of some of the valuable resources available to school health advocates

3 How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools >How education works at the school, district, state, and national levels >Practical tips for how to work with educators, administrators, and policymakers >Updated and expanded 2003 Order at

4 YOUTH Agencies Government

5 State level School district level School level Principal School board Superintendent School improvement council Central office staff Chief state school officer State education agency staff Local government State board of education Legislature Governor School staff A Cast of Thousands

6 Key Issues Confronted by Schools > Education reform pressures EAccountability Students School district School Individual teachers EHigh stakes testing EFederal versus state versus local control >School finance / funding

7 More Key Issues Confronted by Schools >Ready-to-learn issues EStudents enter with extremely different levels of readiness ENon-academic barriers to learning >Changing demands, expectations, perceptions about public education EWhat is a “good school”? >Sustaining support for public education EAging population EEconomic choices

8 Who’s Who at the School Level >The principal is key >Entry points ESchool improvement team ESchool health council EHealth and mental health services staff EClassroom teachers EParent organizations EStudent organizations Principal School improvement council School staff

9 School Health Advisory Council >Tool for identifying priorities and strategies >Broad-based representation ESchool personnel ECommunity professionals EParents EStudents EOthers? >School-level to advise principal >District-wide to advise school board

10 Guides to School Health Councils Obtain through your local American Cancer Society chapter or call ACS-2345 Iowa Department of Public Health fch/fam_serv/advisory.htm

11 Who’s Who at the School District Level In theory…. >The school board makes policy >The superintendent implements it School board Superintendent Central office staff Local government

12 >Formal approaches EService on board and administration advisory committees ETestimony at meetings and public hearings EWritten communications >Informal approaches: EDirect contact with board members and administrators EEnlist influential “key communicators” EMake presentations at meetings and conferences attended by policymakers How to Work with School District Leaders

13 Who’s Who at the State Level >Become knowledgeable about who has what authority and how they interact Chief state school officer State education agency staff State board of education Legislature Governor

14 Preparing a Policy Initiative >Monitor agendas, discussions, board processes, and board members’ interests >Identify policy gaps >Compose rationale for adopting policy >Develop key messages and simple strategies >Compile accurate data from credible sources >Anticipate and prepare for potential conflicts

15 Presenting Information >Make a brief oral presentation of only the most important points >Submit a succinct written rationale >Present disparate research findings from credible organizations in a neutral, balanced manner >Use clear language (i.e., a minimum of academic, public health, and social services jargon) >Unadorned charts and graphs illustrate key findings

16 Persuading Education Leaders >Note serious problems/needs, but emphasize solutions >Link to existing policies, programs, and goals >Use current terminology (‘education reform’, ‘ready to learn’, ‘academic achievement’) >Highlight school health as an emerging trend >Identify policy options >Be honest about costs and potential implementation problems

17 Moving the Issue Forward >Brief sympathetic policymakers on answers to difficult questions that might arise in public meetings >Enlist respected community members to express their support >Enlist the endorsement of the business community >Help students research issues, prepare presentations, and be included on public-hearing agendas >Suggest a pilot study if a policy or program does not gain support

18 Persistence Pays >Respect the hierarchy >Stay focused on the ultimate goal >Don’t expect quick or easy success >Sustain the effort >Be willing to compromise…but know your bottom line >Don’t burn your bridges

19 Useful Resources 1.Data sources 2.Information and guidance 3.Making the case New York Times

20 1. Data Sources K1st2nd3rd4th5th6th7th8th9th10th11th12th Percent of schools Source: CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 Health Education Requirements in U.S. Schools, by Grade

21 >Periodic national survey >Assesses policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels >In elementary, middle/junior, and senior high schools >State report cards on the Internet

22 Percent of U.S. high school students who…  Did not attend physical education class daily68%  Ate less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day during the past 7 days79%  Drank < 3 glasses of milk per day during the past 7 days 84%  Did not participate in moderate physical activity 74%

23 Annie E. Casey Foundation >Annual KIDS COUNT Data Book >State-by-state and national indicators of child well-being are available through an interactive online database >View state profiles, graphs, maps, and rankings >Download raw data

24 2. Information and Guidance

25 CDC’s Guidelines for School Health Programs Physical ActivityHealthy Eating

26 Health Is Academic www2.edc.org/HealthIsAcademic Health Is Academic : A Guide to Coordinated School Health Programs Eva Marx, Susan Wooley, Daphne Northrup, eds., 1998, Teachers College Press

27 School Health Index: A Self- Assessment and Planning Guide >Identify your own school’s strengths and weaknesses >Prioritize issues >Develop an action plan >Involve teachers, students, parents, and community >Download free at dash/SHI/index.htm

28 National Health Education Standards Summary at

29 USDA’s School Meals Initiative >Helping school meals become more consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans >Adding flexibility in procedures used to plan and monitor school menus

30 Valuable Resource from USDA >Complete action kit Eaction guide Eresource materials Ebrochures Etransparencies Evideo ECD-ROM Order free at

31 Food Research and Action Council “Working to improve public policies to eradicate hunger and under- nutrition in the United States” Sample statistic: Percent of Missouri schools participating in the school breakfast program that also participate in the school lunch program: 78%

32 Major North Carolina Initiative >Blueprint for Changing Policies and Environments in Support of Healthy Eating >Blueprint for Changing Policies and Environments in Support of Increased Physical Activity Download free at:

33 Nutrition Education Programs

34 National Physical Education Standards Moving Into the Future: National Physical Education Standards: A Guide to Content and Assessment National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)

35 Fall 2000 Report to the President Promoting Better Health for Young People Through Physical Activity and Sports A Report to the President From the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Education presphysactrpt/index.htm

36 Connecticut PE Guide curriculum/pe_publ_guide1.htm Physical Education: A Guide to K-12 Program Development

37 Physical Activity Ideas for Schools Active Youth: Ideas for Implementing CDC Physical Activity Promotion Guidelines

38 KidsWalk-to-School >Comes with A step-by-step checklist Sample letters, surveys, evaluations, and press releases Safety tips on walking, biking, school bus safety, and stranger danger tips Ideas to make walking to school an active and exciting part of the day. kidswalk/kidswalk_guide.htm

39 Wellness Programs For School Staff PEP—A Personal Energy Plan

40 Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide Guide to policymaking Sample policies - download at healthyschools/fithealthy.mgi Full explanations Research findings Notable quotes Excerpts of actual policies Resource lists

41 A. Overview B. The Art of Policymaking C. General School Health Policies D. Policies to Promote Physical Activity E. Policies to Promote Healthy Eating F. Policies to Help Prevent Tobacco Use G. Policies to Promote Sun Safety and Prevent Skin Cancer H. Policies to Help Prevent HIV, Other STDs, and Pregnancy Among Young People I. Policies on the Treatment and Prevention of Asthma at School Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide

42 Healthy Youth Funding Database

43 3. Making the Case

44 Prevalence of Obesity Among US Adults

45 “Super-Sized” Children Ages BoysGirls Percent Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics BoysGirls BoysGirls BoysGirls 1999 All

46 Televisions in the Home Children who live in homes with 3 or more TVs 6% 60% Sixth graders with a TV in their bedroom 6%77% Source: Kaiser Family Foundation. Kids and Media at the New Millenium, 1999

47 Average Daily Time Children Spent Using Media Ages 2-7 Television 1:59 Videotapes :29 Video games :08 Computer :07 2:43 Ages :16 :45 :27 :31 4:59 Total Source: Kaiser Family Foundation. Kids and Media at the New Millenium, 1999

48 “Generation XXL” High School Students GirlsBoys At-Risk Percent Source: CDC, National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2001 Boys Girls White Girls Hispanic Girls Black Overweight GirlsBoys Missouri

49 School Health Starter Kit From: The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) starterkit.html

50 Building Business Support for School Health Programs >Step-by-step action guide >Field-tested at the state and local levels in New Mexico NASBE_Bookstore/ Safe_Healthy.html

51 Effects of Health Risk Behaviors on Academic Performance >Education outcomes Egraduation rates Eclass grades Eperformance on standardized tests >Education behaviors Eattendance Edropout rates Ebehavioral problems Einvolvement in school activities such as homework and extracurricular pursuits >Student attitudes Easpirations for postsecondary education Efeelings about safety at school Epositive personal outlook Wolford-Symons, C. et al., “Bridging student health risks and academic achievement through comprehensive school health programs,” Journal of School Health, 1997

52 From the Minnesota Department of Children, Families, and Learning >Increased participation in the breakfast program >Improved attentiveness >Fewer discipline referrals >Fewer visits to the health office >Increased math and reading scores >High teacher and parent satisfaction

53 Opinions of Parents of Adolescents >Percent who said that health education is either more important than or as important as other subjects taught in school: Source: Gallup Organization for the American Cancer Society, national telephone survey of 1,003 parents of adolescents enrolled in U.S. public schools, 1993 >Percent who said schools should spend more time or the same amount of time teaching health education as they do for other subjects taught in school: 82% 74%

54 Opinions of Parents of Children in Grades K-12 >Want their kids to receive daily physical education: Source: Survey by Opinion Research Corp. based on interviews with a nationally representative sample of 1,017 adults, February 2000 (margin of error = +6%) >Believe that children should concentrate on academic subjects at school and leave physical activities for after school: 81% 15%

55 Percent of Respondents Who Said Students Should Definitely Know or Be Able to Do Subject Standards by High School Graduation Average % of RankSubject “Definitely” responses 1Health74 2Work skills63 3Language arts59 4Technology57 5Mathematics50 6Thinking and reasoning50 7Science49 8Civics49 9Behavioral studies48 10Physical education44 11Economics43 12History41

56 Full Speed Ahead!

57 James F. Bogden Safe and Healthy Schools Project Director National Association of State Boards of Education >Internet: > > x108


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