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World War II How can the United States use its resources to achieve victory?

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1 World War II How can the United States use its resources to achieve victory?

2 The World goes to war… War breaks out in Europe in1939 after Germany invaded Poland—both Britain & France declared war. War breaks out in Europe in1939 after Germany invaded Poland—both Britain & France declared war. Hitler imposes his “Final Solution” on the Jewish population in Europe Hitler imposes his “Final Solution” on the Jewish population in Europe More alliances are made—Tripartite Pact: Germany, Italy, & Japan More alliances are made—Tripartite Pact: Germany, Italy, & Japan

3 America Moves Toward War President Roosevelt gave aid in the way of supplies to the Allied countries (Britain, China – later Soviet Union) using the Lend-Lease Act in President Roosevelt gave aid in the way of supplies to the Allied countries (Britain, China – later Soviet Union) using the Lend-Lease Act in Allied countries could be loaned, sold, traded, or leased supplies to be repaid “in kind or property” Allied countries could be loaned, sold, traded, or leased supplies to be repaid “in kind or property” FDR helped gain public support by offering the analogy of a neighbor’s house being on fire: “If your neighbor’s house is on fire, you don’t sell him a hose, you give it to him. Then you take it back after the fire is out. This helps your neighbor & makes sure that the fire doesn’t spread to your own house.” FDR helped gain public support by offering the analogy of a neighbor’s house being on fire: “If your neighbor’s house is on fire, you don’t sell him a hose, you give it to him. Then you take it back after the fire is out. This helps your neighbor & makes sure that the fire doesn’t spread to your own house.”

4 Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 December 7, 1941 Attack on American naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii Attack on American naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii More than 2,300 people were killed More than 2,300 people were killed “A date which will live in infamy” “A date which will live in infamy” U.S. declared war on Japan on Dec. 8, 1941 U.S. declared war on Japan on Dec. 8, 1941 The cause of isolationism was gone; former isolationists now supported an all-out American effort. The cause of isolationism was gone; former isolationists now supported an all-out American effort. “The only thing now to do is to lick the hell out of them.” (US Senator) “The only thing now to do is to lick the hell out of them.” (US Senator)

5 On the Homefront Many young men left home to fight the war in Europe—once again, women were left to take their place in the workforce Many young men left home to fight the war in Europe—once again, women were left to take their place in the workforce More women joined the military; some 350,000 served in WWII More women joined the military; some 350,000 served in WWII WAC (Women’s Army Corps) WAC (Women’s Army Corps) Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES) Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES)

6 Homefront Sacrifices As industry tooled for war, Americans experienced shortages in consumer goods. As industry tooled for war, Americans experienced shortages in consumer goods. Government-issued ration books limited the amount of sugar, meat, gasoline, & other goods that people could purchase. Government-issued ration books limited the amount of sugar, meat, gasoline, & other goods that people could purchase. Americans were encouraged to purchase war bonds to help finance the war. Americans were encouraged to purchase war bonds to help finance the war. Victory Gardens became very popular Victory Gardens became very popular

7 Fight for Civil Rights Continues… Throughout the war, the US remained segregated in both civilian & military life. Throughout the war, the US remained segregated in both civilian & military life. Once again, blacks moved from the South to the industrialized North to find employment. Once again, blacks moved from the South to the industrialized North to find employment. To fight discrimination against African Americans in the workplace, A. Philip Randolph, the nation’s most respected African American labor leader, organized a march to occur at the capital. To fight discrimination against African Americans in the workplace, A. Philip Randolph, the nation’s most respected African American labor leader, organized a march to occur at the capital. “We Loyal Colored Americans Demand the Right to Work and Fight for Our Country” “We Loyal Colored Americans Demand the Right to Work and Fight for Our Country” Fearing a protest of 100,000+ people, FDR backed down & reluctantly signed the Executive Order 8802 in 1941 which called on all employers & labor unions “to provide for the full and equitable participation of all workers in defense industries, without discrimination because of race, creed, color, or national origin.” Fearing a protest of 100,000+ people, FDR backed down & reluctantly signed the Executive Order 8802 in 1941 which called on all employers & labor unions “to provide for the full and equitable participation of all workers in defense industries, without discrimination because of race, creed, color, or national origin.”

8 The Manhattan Project In the early 1940s, the US launched the secret $2 billion Manhattan Project, centered at Los Alamos, New Mexico, but had about 37 other locations. In the early 1940s, the US launched the secret $2 billion Manhattan Project, centered at Los Alamos, New Mexico, but had about 37 other locations. Goal: to develop an atomic bomb. Goal: to develop an atomic bomb. President Harry Truman knew the battle against Japan would be very difficult, thus he approved the use of the atomic bomb. President Harry Truman knew the battle against Japan would be very difficult, thus he approved the use of the atomic bomb.

9 Manhattan Project

10 Reactions to War The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor fueled suspicion & fear among Americans The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor fueled suspicion & fear among Americans Many supported that the Japanese, German, & Italian Americans would end up supporting the Axis Powers Many supported that the Japanese, German, & Italian Americans would end up supporting the Axis Powers As a result, thousands of such citizens were forced to relocate to internment camps. As a result, thousands of such citizens were forced to relocate to internment camps. They tended to be located in remote areas and were meant to keep potentially threatening citizens in an isolated location where the government could keep an eye on them. They tended to be located in remote areas and were meant to keep potentially threatening citizens in an isolated location where the government could keep an eye on them.

11 Discrimination during War time FDR ordered the evacuation of more than 100,000 Japanese from their homes—even though many were US citizens whose families had lived in the US for generations FDR ordered the evacuation of more than 100,000 Japanese from their homes—even though many were US citizens whose families had lived in the US for generations In 1944, the US Supreme Court ruled that the internment was lawful and justified due to “…the military urgency of the situation.” In 1944, the US Supreme Court ruled that the internment was lawful and justified due to “…the military urgency of the situation.” 1983: the US government formally recognized the injustice and authorized payments of $20,000 to each Japanese American who had suffered. 1983: the US government formally recognized the injustice and authorized payments of $20,000 to each Japanese American who had suffered.

12 Practice Questions In what way did the Lend-Lease Act provide a compromise between the will of the president and the belief of many in Congress? In what way did the Lend-Lease Act provide a compromise between the will of the president and the belief of many in Congress? A) It allowed assistance to friendly nations without the US directly participating in war A) It allowed assistance to friendly nations without the US directly participating in war B) it limited American involvement in European affairs by only providing advisors to friendly nations B) it limited American involvement in European affairs by only providing advisors to friendly nations C) it curtailed the sale of supplies to all nations involved in conflict C) it curtailed the sale of supplies to all nations involved in conflict D) It assisted Great Britain’s efforts against Germany but did not offer help to other nations D) It assisted Great Britain’s efforts against Germany but did not offer help to other nations

13 Practice Questions What was the result of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941? What was the result of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941? A) the US renewed the Neutrality Acts A) the US renewed the Neutrality Acts B) the US declared war on Japan B) the US declared war on Japan C) Congress overwhelmingly voted against a declaration of war C) Congress overwhelmingly voted against a declaration of war D) Germany declared war on the US D) Germany declared war on the US

14 1) What persuasive images & slogans are featured in this poster? 1) What persuasive images & slogans are featured in this poster? 2) To what emotions does this poster appeal? 2) To what emotions does this poster appeal? 3) Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the US was determined to stay out of the war & remain neutral. In what ways does this poster attempt to chance public opinion? 3) Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, the US was determined to stay out of the war & remain neutral. In what ways does this poster attempt to chance public opinion?

15 4) Is there any difference between the Pearl Harbor poster and this cartoon that came out after the attacks on September 11 th ? 4) Is there any difference between the Pearl Harbor poster and this cartoon that came out after the attacks on September 11 th ?


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