Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 16: WORLD WAR II. ISOLATIONISM International conflicts in mid 1930s Most Americans do not want to be involved 1928 – U.S. had signed the Kellogg-Briand."— Presentation transcript:
ISOLATIONISM International conflicts in mid 1930s Most Americans do not want to be involved 1928 – U.S. had signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact -> signed by 62 nations -> war will not be used -> no plan to enforce it Thomas Jefferson had warned of “entangling alliances” or being involved in the affairs of other countries Many Americans were fearful of all foreign elements Jews Catholics immigrants
AMERICANS WERE UPSET ABOUT WWI Books are published stating the U.S. had been dragged into war by greedy bankers and weapons manufacturers Congressional committee led by Senator Gerald Nye -> shows large profits made during WWI
QUESTION What factors contributed to Americans’ growing isolationism?
ANSWER Large profits had been made by banks and weapon industry during WWI Bitter about being in that war Hatred of the military
FDR’S FOREIGN POLICY 1933 – FDR is a friendly president Recognizes the Soviet Union in 1933 and exchanges ambassadors Good Neighbor Policy – no intervention in Latin America Withdrew armed forces in L. America 1934 – reduces tariffs 1935 – Congress passes the NEUTRALITY ACTS U.S. could not sell weapons or give loans to nations in war
JOURNAL When do you think it is right for the U.S. to enter a war? Why?
SECTION 1: MOBILIZING FOR DEFENSE Japan Times says America is “trembling in her shoes” 5 million volunteer for military service Selective Service Act provides 10 million soldiers Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) – women volunteers serve in non-combat positions Pilots, ambulance drivers, electricians
WHAT ABOUT DISCRIMINATION? “Here lies a black man killed fighting a yellow man for the protection of a white man”
DISCRIMINATION IN MILITARY 300,000 Mexican-Americans join the military 1 million African Americans in segregated units - > no combat until 1943 33,000 Japanese Americans 25,000 Native Americans Chinese cannot become naturalized citizens
A PRODUCTION MIRACLE Factories are converted for war production Car plants now make tanks, planes, boats Henry Kaiser’s shipyards made a ship each day by 1945
CONTRIBUTION OF THE WORKERS Men are fighting 6 million women enter the workforce No problem operating welding torches or riveting guns Paid 60% of what men earn Minorities are also not hired at first
A. PHILIP RANDOLPH Most respected African American labor leader organizes a march on Washington D.C. 1941 Demands: “The right to work and fight for our country.” March is cancelled after FDR issues executive order making discrimination in defense industries illegal
MOBILIZATION OF SCIENTISTS 1941 – FDR creates the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) -> leads to better radar + sonar, pesticides, penicillin Secret development of the atomic bomb – German scientists (Albert Einstein) split uranium atoms -> release enormous amounts of energy FDR starts intensive program to build an atomic bomb in 1942 = Manhattan Project
Office of Price Administration (OPA) – freezes prices so that the price of goods does not increase drastically Higher taxes + war bonds keep inflation in check War Production Board (WPB) – decides companies that will convert to war production Rationing – families are only allowed to purchase small quantities of scarce goods (meat, sugar, coffee, gasoline) THE FEDERAL GOVT. TAKES CONTROL
QUESTIONS SECTION 1 How did each of the following contribute to the war effort? 1. Selective Service Act 2. Woman 3. Minorities 4. Manufacturers 5. A. Philip Randolph 6. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) 7. Office of Price Administration (OPA) 8. War Production Board (WPB) 9. Rationing