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MARKING OUT AND MEASURING Learning Objective KS4 Resistant Materials Look at the pictures on the cards showing the tools and take it turns with a partner.

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Presentation on theme: "MARKING OUT AND MEASURING Learning Objective KS4 Resistant Materials Look at the pictures on the cards showing the tools and take it turns with a partner."— Presentation transcript:

1 MARKING OUT AND MEASURING Learning Objective KS4 Resistant Materials Look at the pictures on the cards showing the tools and take it turns with a partner to name each tool and describe its use.

2 MARKING OUT AND MEASURING Development KS4 Resistant Materials Steel rule For measuring up to 300mm in length Advantage: Rigid form which means it will not bend and flex. Disadvantage: Ends can get worn, so the measurements are not accurate.

3 MARKING OUT AND MEASURING Development KS4 Resistant Materials Measuring tape For making longer measurements up to 5m Advantage: Longer, so more versatile. Disadvantage: Can become twisted and break. Ends can break off, making them useless.

4 MARKING OUT AND MEASURING Development KS4 Resistant Materials Try square Marking out or checking right angles on wood or plastic. Engineer’s square Marking out or checking right angles on metal or plastic. Mitre square Marking out or checking angles of 45 0 or A try square will usually have a brass face on the inside of the stock. Why do you think there is a brass face on the stock rather than leaving it as wood? What is a disadvantage of using a square?

5 MARKING OUT AND MEASURING Development KS4 Resistant Materials Marking gauge Marking lines parallel to the face edge and side on wood. Cutting gauge Used for cutting across the grain. It has a blade instead of a spure. It cuts the fibres across the grain, making it easier to and neater to cut with a saw. Mortise gauge Has two pins; one pin is fixed and the other adjustable. It is used for marking two parallel lines where a mortise and tenon joint is to be cut.

6 MARKING OUT AND MEASURING Development KS4 Resistant Materials Scribers Used to scratch the surface of metal or plastic lightly. Use engineer’s blue to leave a clean line which can be easily be seen. Punches Centre punches are used to make an indent in the surface where holes are to be drilled in metal. Dot punches are used for marking the centres where dividers are to be used. Their tips are ground to 60 0 rather than 90 o. Templates Used when a number of identical shapes or patterns need to be marked out. You can make a template from any thin material such as plywood or aluminium, that is easy to draw around.

7 MARKING OUT AND MEASURING Development KS4 Resistant Materials Micrometers A specialist instrument used to take very accurate measurements. The thimble, which rotates as the micrometer is tightened, has 50 equal divisions around its diameter, giving an accuracy of 0.01mm. A reading is taken by adding all the visible whole numbers to the nearest 0.5mm (the reading from thimble – between 0 and 0.49mm – is added to the main reading to get the exact measurement. It is difficult to learn how to read it.

8 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Coping saw Cut curves in wood and plastics. Has a thin, replaceable blade held in a frame with teeth pointing backwards, towards the handle. Advantage: Blade can be rotated easily to cut complex shapes and curves. Blade can be removed from the frame so that pockets or windows can be cut out. Disadvantage: Blades easily broken due to their size. Difficult to control when making straight cuts. Blades can be put in the wrong way round.

9 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Tenon saw Used for cutting straight lines in wood. Used for general purposed joints but specifically used to cut shoulder of tenons in tenon and mortise joints. Advantage: Good general purpose woodworking saw. Disadvantage: Depth of cut limited to depth of blade.

10 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Dovetail saw Used for small, accurate work such as dovetail joints. Shorter than tenon saws. Advantage: Fine accurate cut. Smaller teeth make it ideal for finer work. Disadvantage: Only appropriate for fine work. Not robust enough for general purpose work.

11 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Adjustable hacksaw Has a replaceable blade held in a frame. Blade can be angled to cut difficult shapes or if the frame gets in the way of the piece being cut. Blade can vary in length from 250 – 300mm. Teeth face forwards. Can be used for fine work or rough cutting out. Advantage: Can be used to make straight cuts in plastic and metals. Blade can be removed from blade to cut out windows and pockets. Disadvantage: Blades easily snap or twist easily. Blades can be put back in the wrong way round. Why is better to have the teeth of the blade facing backwards towards to handle?

12 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Jack plane Smooths and flattens wood to size. Advantage: Long and heavy so ideal for creating a flat surface. Disadvantage: Easily jammed if not correctly set. Heavy to use.

13 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Smoothing plane Finishing a surface and for use on end grain. Advantage: Ideal for use on end grain due to its length. Disadvantage: Easily jammed if not correctly set. How should plane an end grain?

14 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials block plane Removes sharp edges and makes a bevelled edge. Advantage: Can be used in one hand. Easy to create small bevels. Disadvantage: Easily jammed if not correctly set. Not effect on large flat surfaces.

15 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Firmer chisel A general purpose chisel which has a square edge. Bevel edged chisel Has a bevelled blade that allows it to get into corners and is especially useful for cutting dovetails. Mortise chisel Have much deeper blades and are used with a mallet for cutting mortise gauge. Gouge Have curved blades and are used for carving.

16 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Metal chisel Used to cut sheet metal either by shearing across it or by shopping down on it vertically. They have hardened and tempered cutting edge while the other end is left soft to absorb the impact from the hammer blows.

17 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Abrading tools Rasp Quick removal of waste wood. Advantage: Can be used like a file to create external curves. Good on flat edges and surfaces. Disadvantage: Clogs up easily.

18 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Abrading tools Surform Fast removal of soft material. Advantage: Can be used on flat or 3D surfaces. Disadvantage: Blades can break easily.

19 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Files Flat file Removes waste on large flat surfaces quickly. Can be used to create external curves. Advantage: Has a safe edge on one side to prevent cutting into edge when filing a corner. Disadvantage: Brittle and easily broken if dropped. Teeth clog when filing soft material such as brass and aluminium (called pinning).

20 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Files Round file Creates curves and fillets. Advantage: Increases in diameter along the length so can be used on different sized holes. Disadvantage: Small cross-section makes it weak and easily broken.

21 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Files Three square file Cuts into corners less than 90 o. Advantage: Useful between angles of 60 o and 90 o. Disadvantage: Cannot file angles smaller than 60 o.

22 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Drills Twist drill Twist of flute carries waste material away in the form of swarf. Smaller sizes can be used in a hand drill. Advantage: Available in sizes from 0.5mm diameter to over 25mm. Disadvantage: Small drills prone to breaking if not used correctly.

23 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Drills Flat bit Used to drill a hole all the way through but will break through splintering wood on the underside. Advantage: Fast removal of waste with an electric drill. Disadvantage: Will split wood on the underside if not supported by another piece of wood.

24 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Drills Countersink bit Creates a depression for head of a countersink screw so that it sits flush with surface of material. Advantage: Can be used to create a range of countersink holes. Disadvantage: Will chatter if used at a high speed.

25 Wasting tools Development KS4 Resistant Materials Drills Hole saw Used on thin materials or to make up large hole up to 150mm in diameter. Used in an electric drill. Advantage: Widely used by plumbers and electricians to make holes for pipes and ducting. Can be used on thick and thin sections of wood and plastic. Disadvantage: Have a tendency to burn if used at a too high speed. Only come in set sizes.

26 Quick notes Plenary KS4 Resistant Materials Each wasting tool is used for a very particular use. For example. Planes smooth and finish wood Chisels carve and cut metal or wood. Abrading tools remove small particles of waste.

27 Exam questions Plenary KS4 Resistant Materials Which of the following is not a type of gauge. A marking Bmeasuring Cmortise Dcutting

28 Exam questions Plenary KS4 Resistant Materials Which type of saw is shown below: A coping saw Bdovetail saw Cjigsaw Dadjustable hacksaw

29 Exam questions Plenary KS4 Resistant Materials Complete the table below which shows some tools by filling in the missing names and uses. ToolsNameUse Tape measure Smoothing plane Marking out two parallel lines on wood Making very accurate measurements Which tools are marking out tools and which are wasting tools?

30 Exam questions Plenary KS4 Resistant Materials A student needs to mark out 10 identical copies of the shape. The shape is marked out onto an acrylic sheet using a template and marking-out tool. Name one marking out tool that can be used to mark around the template (1mark). Which tools are marking out tools and which are wasting tools?


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