2 Ensure file is fitted with handle before use to avoid injury
3 File Handle Fitting The handle must be fitted correctly to avoid damage, if it were just forced on using a hammer or mallet the handle would split due to taper on tang forcing wood out. Correct fitting method is: 1) Heat up the tang of the file with a flame as shown
4 2) Push handle onto heated tang using leather gloves as shown below 2) Push handle onto heated tang using leather gloves as shown below. This burns the wood inside the hole of the handles and forms it to the shape of the tang to form a good tight fit that will be permanent.
5 Using the file The file is held with both hands squarely on material as shown and moved across work piece as shown to achieve flat finish
6 To achieve a very fine cut with a smooth finish the file is used as shown below, this is called draw filing
7 Types of File cut Files are produced with three main types of cut these are: 1) Single cut files have one set of teeth diagonally arranged across the file and are used on soft materials such as Copper and Brass as the single row of teeth is less likely to clog up.
8 2) Cross cut files have two sets of teeth crossing each diagonally across the file, these are the most common type and are used on harder materials such as iron and steel, as this type of material is less likely to clog up the file.
9 3) The rasp has large individual teeth arranged well spaced out across the file in rows, they are used for filling very soft materials such as aluminium, wood and plastic as there is a greater risk of materials like these clogging up the file
10 Files are produced in five main grades these are: Grades of fileFiles are produced in five main grades these are:Rough cut which are very course and used to remove large quantities of material quickly.Bastard cut which is semi-rough and used to remove medium amounts of material, for general purpose filing and where surface finish is not important.Second cut which is used to remove small to medium amounts of material, and shape component close to finished size, also where a reasonable surface finish is required.Smooth cut which is used to remove small amounts of material, and can be a finishing cut if a smooth surface finish is required.Dead smooth cut which is used only for finishing cuts where only very small amounts of material need to be removed and where a very smooth surface finish is required.
11 The three most commonly used grades are shown below
12 Different shaped files Flat file: this is parallel in width and thickness, usually has a double cut on both faces with a single cut on one edge and no teeth on final edge, this is known as a safe edge which protects shoulders when filing against a finished edge.
13 Square file which tapers on all sides on the last third used for filing rectangular holes, slots or grooves
14 Round file, as the name suggests this is round in shape and used for opening up holes or elongating slots.
15 Half round file, double cut on flat face and single cut on round face, used for filing internal curved surfaces, flat side can be used for general purpose filing.
16 Three square or triangular file, this is double cut on all three faces it is used for filing corners or acute angles.
17 Knife file, very thin used for filing were there is very little space such as small openings or grooves.