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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. H UMAN P HYSIOLOGY PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. H UMAN P HYSIOLOGY PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. H UMAN P HYSIOLOGY PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Dr. Howard D. Booth, Professor of Biology, Eastern Michigan University AN INTEGRATED APPROACH T H I R D E D I T I O N Chapter 15, part B Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arteriole Resistance: Control of Local Blood Flow Myogenic auto regulation Paracrines: Active hyperemia Reactive hyperemia Sympathetic nerves – CNS

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arteriole Resistance: Control of Local Blood Flow PLAY Animation: Cardiovascular System: Autoregulation and Capillary Dynamics Figure 15-11: Hyperemia

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Responds to metabolic need Precapillary sphincters Local & CNS regulators Huge variations (example: skeletal m 20-85%) Distribution of Blood in the Body Organs

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Distribution of Blood in the Body Organs Figure 15-13: Distribution of blood in the body at rest

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lowest Velocity Hydrostatic pressure drops Capillary Blood Flow: Greatest Total Cross Sectional Area Figure 15-17: The velocity of flow depends on the total cross- sectional area

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Capillary Exchange: Colloidal Osmotic Pressure is Constant Proteins stay in capillary Water, oxygen, glucose – move out CO 2, N wastes, water – move in Bulk flow out on arterial side, in on venous side PLAY Animation: Cardiovascular System: Autoregulation and Capillary Dynamics

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Capillary Exchange: Colloidal Osmotic Pressure is Constant Figure 15-18a: Fluid exchange at the capillary

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Net filtration – net absorption = net out flow About 2 L/day collected by lymph vessels Net Out Flow Into ECF Figure 15-18b: Fluid exchange at the capillary

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings High on arterial side – bulk flow out Low on venous side – bulk flow in Fenestrations &/or leaky joints speed exchange Capillary Exchange: Hydrostatic Pressure Declines Figure 15-18a: Fluid exchange at the capillary

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lymphatic System: Structure and Roles (overview) Lymphatic structures Capillaries with valves Lymph vessels Lymph nodes & organs Immune defense: lymphocytes Transport of fats Collects excess ECF Returns to plasma Edema PLAY Animation: Fluids & Electrolytes: Electrolyte Homeostasis

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lymphatic System: Structure and Roles (overview) Figure 15-19: The lymphatic system

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regulation of Blood Pressure Medullary cardiac control center Baroreceptor reflex Carotid Aortic Kidney: blood volume Hypothalamus & Cortex: stress, blushing, etc. PLAY Animation: Cardiovascular System: Blood Pressure Regulation

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Regulation of Blood Pressure Figure 15-22: The baroreceptor reflex: the response to increased blood pressure

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Risk Factors: Smoking Obesity Diabetes Genes Diseases: Hypertension Stroke "Heart Attack" Cardiovascular Diseases: #1 killer

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings LDL build up Plaque  Flow Rupture Clot Blocked flow Tissue death Mechanism of Atherosclerosis

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mechanism of Atherosclerosis Figure 15-24: The development of atherosclerotic plaques

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mechanism of Atherosclerosis Figure 15-24: The development of atherosclerotic plaques

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood vessels, anatomy & role in circulation Measuring blood pressures, MAP & pulse pressure Role of resistance in BP and distribution of blood Autoregulation, baroreceptros, medullary cardiac control center and CNS regulation of blood pressure & distribution Summary

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hydrostatic & colloidal osmotic pressures direct bulk flow in capillary exchange by diffusion, fenestrations & leaky joints Role of lymphatic system to return excess ECF to plasma Atherosclerosis common to several cardiovascular diseases Summary


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