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POWERPOINT ® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by LYNN CIALDELLA, MA, MBA, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "POWERPOINT ® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by LYNN CIALDELLA, MA, MBA, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 POWERPOINT ® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by LYNN CIALDELLA, MA, MBA, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOURTH EDITION DEE UNGLAUB SILVERTHORN UNIT 3 PART B 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

2 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arteriolar Resistance  Sympathetic reflexes  Local control of arteriolar resistance  Hormones

3 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arteriolar Resistance

4 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arteriolar Resistance  Myogenic autoregulation  Paracrines  Active hyperemia  Reactive hyperemia  Sympathetic control  SNS: norepinephrine  Adrenal medulla: epinephrine

5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hyperemia Figure 15-11a

6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-11b Hyperemia

7 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-12 Norepinephrine Tonic control of arteriolar diameter

8 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-13 Distribution of Blood Distribution of blood in the body at rest

9 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-14a Blood Flow Blood flow through individual blood vessels is determined by vessel’s resistance to flow

10 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-14b Blood Flow Blood flow through individual blood vessels is determined by vessel’s resistance to flow Flow  1/resistance

11 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-15a Precapillary Sphincters

12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-15b Precapillary Sphincters

13 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Capillaries: Exchange  Plasma and cells exchange materials across thin capillary wall  Capillary density is related to metabolic activity of cells  Capillaries have the thinnest walls  Single layer of flattened endothelial cells  Supported by basal lamina  Bone marrow, liver and spleen do not have typical capillaries but sinusoids

14 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-16a Two Types of Capillaries

15 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Two Types of Capillaries Figure 15-16b

16 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-17 Velocity of Blood Flow Velocity of flow depends on total cross-sectional area of the vessels

17 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Capillary Exchange  Exchange by paracellular pathway or transendothelial transport  Small dissolved solutes and gasses by diffusion is determined by concentration gradient  Large solutes and proteins by vesicular transport  In most capillaries, large proteins are transported by transcytosis

18 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Capillary Exchange  Bulk flow  Mass movement as result of hydrostatic or osmotic pressure gradients  Absorption: fluid movement into capillaries  Net absorption at venous end  Filtration: fluid movement out of capillaries  Caused by hydrostatic pressure  Net filtration at arterial end

19 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-18a Fluid Exchange at a Capillary Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure regulate bulk flow Animation: Cardiovascular System: Autoregulation and Capillary Dynamics PLAY

20 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lymphatic System  Returning fluid and proteins to circulatory system  Picking up fat absorbed and transferring it to circulatory system  Serving as filter for pathogens

21 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-18b Fluid Exchange at a Capillary

22 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-19 Lymphatic System

23 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Edema  Two causes  Inadequate drainage of lymph  Filtration far greater than absorption  Disruption of balance between filtration and absorption  Increase in hydrostatic pressure  Decrease in plasma protein concentration  Increase in interstitial proteins

24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons Veins Arterioles Ventricles SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY Blood Pressure Components of the baroreceptor reflex

25 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 (1 of 10) Blood Pressure Change in blood pressure Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

26 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 (2 of 10) Blood Pressure Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

27 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 (3 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

28 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 (4 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

29 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 (5 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

30 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 (6 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

31 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 (7 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

32 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 (8 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons Ventricles SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

33 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 (9 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons Arterioles Ventricles SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

34 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-21 (10 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons Veins Arterioles Ventricles SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

35 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-22 Blood Pressure The baroreceptor reflex: the response to increased blood pressure

36 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-23 Blood Pressure The baroreceptor reflex: the response to orthostatic hypotension Animation: Cardiovascular System: Blood Pressure Regulation PLAY

37 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings CVD: Risk Factors  Not controllable  Gender  Age  Family History  Controllable  Smoking  Obesity  Sedentary lifestyle  Untreated hypertension

38 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings CVD: Risk Factors  Uncontrollable genetic but modifiable lifestyle  Blood lipids  Leads to atherosclerosis  HDL-C versus LDL-C  Diabetes mellitus  Metabolic disorder contributes to development of atherosclerosis

39 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-24 LDL and Plaque The development of atherosclerotic plaques

40 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-25 Hypertension The relationship between blood pressure and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease Essential hypertension has no clear cause other than hereditary

41 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hypertension  Carotid and aortic baroreceptors adapt  Risk factor for atherosclerosis  Heart muscle hypertrophies  Pulmonary edema  Congestive heart failure  Treatment  Calcium channel blockers, diuretics, beta-blocking drugs, and ACE inhibitors

42 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Summary  Blood vessels  Vascular smooth muscle, metarterioles, venules, and angiogenesis  Measuring blood pressure  Systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure, MAP, and Korotkoff sounds  Resistance in the arterioles  Myogenic autoregulation, active hyperemia, and reactive hyperemia

43 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Summary  Distribution of blood  Capillary exchange  Continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries, bulk flow, filtration, absorption, and colloid osmotic pressure  Lymphatic system  Blood pressure regulation  Baroreceptors, baroreceptor reflex, and cardiovascular control center  Cardiovascular disease


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