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POWERPOINT ® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by LYNN CIALDELLA, MA, MBA, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "POWERPOINT ® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by LYNN CIALDELLA, MA, MBA, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 POWERPOINT ® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by LYNN CIALDELLA, MA, MBA, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOURTH EDITION DEE UNGLAUB SILVERTHORN UNIT 3 PART B 15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure

2 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arteriolar Resistance  Sympathetic reflexes  Local control of arteriolar resistance  Hormones

3 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arteriolar Resistance

4 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arteriolar Resistance  Myogenic autoregulation  Paracrines  Active hyperemia  Reactive hyperemia  Sympathetic control  SNS: norepinephrine  Adrenal medulla: epinephrine

5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hyperemia Figure 15-11a

6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-11b Hyperemia

7 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Norepinephrine Tonic control of arteriolar diameter

8 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Distribution of Blood Distribution of blood in the body at rest

9 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-14a Blood Flow Blood flow through individual blood vessels is determined by vessel’s resistance to flow

10 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-14b Blood Flow Blood flow through individual blood vessels is determined by vessel’s resistance to flow Flow  1/resistance

11 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-15a Precapillary Sphincters

12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-15b Precapillary Sphincters

13 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Capillaries: Exchange  Plasma and cells exchange materials across thin capillary wall  Capillary density is related to metabolic activity of cells  Capillaries have the thinnest walls  Single layer of flattened endothelial cells  Supported by basal lamina  Bone marrow, liver and spleen do not have typical capillaries but sinusoids

14 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-16a Two Types of Capillaries

15 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Two Types of Capillaries Figure 15-16b

16 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Velocity of Blood Flow Velocity of flow depends on total cross-sectional area of the vessels

17 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Capillary Exchange  Exchange by paracellular pathway or transendothelial transport  Small dissolved solutes and gasses by diffusion is determined by concentration gradient  Large solutes and proteins by vesicular transport  In most capillaries, large proteins are transported by transcytosis

18 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Capillary Exchange  Bulk flow  Mass movement as result of hydrostatic or osmotic pressure gradients  Absorption: fluid movement into capillaries  Net absorption at venous end  Filtration: fluid movement out of capillaries  Caused by hydrostatic pressure  Net filtration at arterial end

19 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-18a Fluid Exchange at a Capillary Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure regulate bulk flow Animation: Cardiovascular System: Autoregulation and Capillary Dynamics PLAY

20 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lymphatic System  Returning fluid and proteins to circulatory system  Picking up fat absorbed and transferring it to circulatory system  Serving as filter for pathogens

21 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15-18b Fluid Exchange at a Capillary

22 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Lymphatic System

23 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Edema  Two causes  Inadequate drainage of lymph  Filtration far greater than absorption  Disruption of balance between filtration and absorption  Increase in hydrostatic pressure  Decrease in plasma protein concentration  Increase in interstitial proteins

24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons Veins Arterioles Ventricles SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY Blood Pressure Components of the baroreceptor reflex

25 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (1 of 10) Blood Pressure Change in blood pressure Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

26 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (2 of 10) Blood Pressure Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

27 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (3 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

28 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (4 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

29 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (5 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

30 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (6 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

31 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (7 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

32 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (8 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons Ventricles SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

33 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (9 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons Arterioles Ventricles SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

34 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure (10 of 10) Blood Pressure Medullary cardiovascular control center Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Change in blood pressure Parasympathetic neurons Sympathetic neurons Veins Arterioles Ventricles SA node Integrating center Stimulus Efferent pathway Effector Sensor/receptor KEY

35 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Blood Pressure The baroreceptor reflex: the response to increased blood pressure

36 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Blood Pressure The baroreceptor reflex: the response to orthostatic hypotension Animation: Cardiovascular System: Blood Pressure Regulation PLAY

37 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings CVD: Risk Factors  Not controllable  Gender  Age  Family History  Controllable  Smoking  Obesity  Sedentary lifestyle  Untreated hypertension

38 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings CVD: Risk Factors  Uncontrollable genetic but modifiable lifestyle  Blood lipids  Leads to atherosclerosis  HDL-C versus LDL-C  Diabetes mellitus  Metabolic disorder contributes to development of atherosclerosis

39 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure LDL and Plaque The development of atherosclerotic plaques

40 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Hypertension The relationship between blood pressure and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease Essential hypertension has no clear cause other than hereditary

41 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hypertension  Carotid and aortic baroreceptors adapt  Risk factor for atherosclerosis  Heart muscle hypertrophies  Pulmonary edema  Congestive heart failure  Treatment  Calcium channel blockers, diuretics, beta-blocking drugs, and ACE inhibitors

42 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Summary  Blood vessels  Vascular smooth muscle, metarterioles, venules, and angiogenesis  Measuring blood pressure  Systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure, MAP, and Korotkoff sounds  Resistance in the arterioles  Myogenic autoregulation, active hyperemia, and reactive hyperemia

43 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Summary  Distribution of blood  Capillary exchange  Continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries, bulk flow, filtration, absorption, and colloid osmotic pressure  Lymphatic system  Blood pressure regulation  Baroreceptors, baroreceptor reflex, and cardiovascular control center  Cardiovascular disease


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