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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. H UMAN P HYSIOLOGY PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. H UMAN P HYSIOLOGY PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. H UMAN P HYSIOLOGY PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Dr. Howard D. Booth, Professor of Biology, Eastern Michigan University AN INTEGRATED APPROACH T H I R D E D I T I O N Chapter 18, part A Gas Exchange and Transport

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings About this Chapter Getting CO 2 & O 2 dissolved for transport How oxygen is transported, role of hemoglobin How carbon dioxide is transported Regulators that sense and coordinate respiration with circulation for gas transport

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview of Respiratory Exchange Figure 18-1: Overview of oxygen and exchange and Transport CO 2

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pressure gradient: lower at high altitudes Temperature: constant in warm blooded humans Solubility (solute & solvent): O 2 or CO 2 in water Solubility of Gasses Figure 18-2: Gases in solution

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues: Oxygen Diffusion through alveolar thin cells Down diffusion gradient Higher in alveoli Lower in blood Diffusion from blood Also down gradient To ECF To tissue cells (convert O 2 to CO 2 ) PLAY Animation: Respiratory System: Gas Exchange

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues: Oxygen Figure 18-3a: Gas exchange at the alveoli and cells

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues: Carbon Dioxide Diffusion out of cells (down diffusion gradient) Into blood Buffer role Conversions: Plasma Bicarbonate On Hb Into alveolus & expiration

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues: Carbon Dioxide Figure 18-3b: Gas exchange at the alveoli and cells

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Alveolar Exchange and Diseases Related to Exchange Wet surface Thin epithelia Little ECF Diseases: Emphysema Fibrotic Lung Pulmonary edema Asthma

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Alveolar Exchange and Diseases Related to Exchange Figure 18-5: Oxygen diffuses across the alveolar and endothelial cells to enter the plasma

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview of Hemostasis: Clot Formation & Vessel Repair Figure 18-4: Pulmonary pathologies that affect alveolarventilation and gas exchange

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas Transport in the Blood: Oxygen Figure 18-6: Summary of oxygen transport in the blood 2% in plasma 98% in hemoglobin (Hb) Blood holds O 2 reserve

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas Transport in the Blood: Oxygen Figure 18-7 : The role of hemoglobin in oxygen transport PLAY Animation: Respiratory System: Gas Transport

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hemoglobin Transport of Oxygen: Disassociation Curve 4 binding sites per Hb molecule 98% saturated in alveolar arteries Resting cell P O2 = 40 mmHg Working cell P O2 = 20 mmHg More unloaded with more need 75% in reserve at normal activity

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hemoglobin Transport of Oxygen: Disassociation Curve Figure 18-8: Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve


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