Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II Chapters 16-17 1931-1945. World War II: Prelude to Pearl Harbor, 1931-1941 Main Idea: As dictatorships rose in Asia and Europe, the U.S."— Presentation transcript:
WORLD WAR II Chapters
World War II: Prelude to Pearl Harbor, Main Idea: As dictatorships rose in Asia and Europe, the U.S. tried to remain isolated. Official isolationism ended when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor
RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE AND ASIA 1925 – Mussolini became dictator in Italy 1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria (China) 1934 – Hitler seized power in Germany 1935 – Italy invaded Ethiopia 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis formed 1937 – Japan launched full invasion of China (Peking) 1938 – Germany invaded Austria; Anschluss (union) proclaimed
WORLD WAR II BEGINS IN EUROPE 1938 – Munich Conference; Germany occupied the Sudetenland 1939 – Germany seized Czechoslovakia 1939 – Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact Sept 1, 1939 – Germany invaded Poland 1939 – France and Great Britain declare war on Germany
The U.S. and Japan Japan seized Southern Indochina (including Vietnam) in 1941 FDR froze all Japanese assets in the U.S. and placed an embargo on Japan U.S. demanded that Japan remove all forces from China and Indochina Japan approved an attack on the U.S. on December 1
The Attack on Pearl Harbor U.S. believed Japan would attack in Malaysia or the Philippines Surprise attack on Pearl Harbor came on Sunday, December 7, ,323 servicemen killed, 1,100 wounded 150 aircraft, 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 3 destroyers sunk or damaged 3 aircraft carriers not in port
Battleship Row at Pearl Harbor
The USS Arizona burned for two days.
FDR signs the declaration of war against Japan.
World War II: Allied Strategies Main Idea: The Allies postponed an invasion of western Europe until Italy was secured. Meanwhile, in the Pacific, the Allies used the strategy of island hopping to get closer to the main Japanese islands.
EUROPEAN STRATEGY 3 days after the U.S. declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. The Allied strategy was get Hitler first, then Japan The Allies defeated Germany in North Africa (Operation Torch) by 1943 Italy surrendered in June 1944
Defeat of Germany The Soviets moved into Eastern Europe in March 1944 Allies invaded Normandy on D-Day, June 6, 1944 (Operation Overlord) Paris was liberated by August In December the Germans drove the Allies back in Belgium in the Battle of the Bulge American and Soviet forces met in Germany in April, 1945; Germany surrendered on May 7
Battle of the Bulge
Eisenhower giving instructions to paratroopers on D-Day
Troops landing on Omaha beach on D-Day
Strategy in the Pacific Battle of Midway: Admiral Nimitz defeated a superior Japanese fleet and stopped the Japanese advance in the Pacific (June 1942). 4 Japanese aircraft carriers were sunk Island Hopping: major Japanese islands were bypassed and air bases were established on smaller islands (started in1943)
The USS Yorktown under attack at Midway
The beginning of the end for Japan Leyte Gulf (Oct. 1944): Most of Japans naval fleet defeated. Japan begins to use kamikaze attacks. Iwo Jima (Feb. 1945): Heavily fortified; enabled the U.S. to bomb Tokyo Okinawa (April-June 1945): 50,000 American casualties; Japans remaining defenses destroyed.
Marines carry the flag under fire at Iwo Jima
Navajo Code Talkers played a vital role at Iwo Jima SPECIAL FIGHTING FORCES Main Idea: Despite discrimination, ethnic groups contributed significantly to the Allied victory in WWII.
Tuskegee Airmen: African-American Squadron won two distinguished unit citations for fighting the Germans
442nd Regimental Combat Team: Japanese-American unit that served in Italy and N. Africa, became the most decorated unit in U.S. history
FDRs Foreign Policy and Wartime Conferences Main Idea: The U.S., Great Britain and Russia planned wartime and post-war strategies at several conferences from 1941 to 1945.
Freedom From FearFreedom From Want FDRs FOUR FREEDOMS shaped his foreign policy
Freedom of Speech Freedom of Worship
The Atlantic Charter Meeting In Aug 1941 FDR and Churchill met secretly to plan for the post-war world and created an 8-point document that became the foundation for the United Nations
In January, 1943 FDR and Churchill rendezvoused in Casablanca to develop a strategy to satisfy Stalin who was complaining that the Allies were delaying the opening of a 2 nd front in Europe. It was the first time a U.S. president ever left the country during a war. THE CASABLANCA CONFERENCE
Casablanca Conference, Jan FDR and Churchill met in French Morocco (Stalin declined invitation) Planned for the invasion of Sicily and Italy (Operation Torch had begun in the summer of 1942) Decided to invade France in 1944 Demanded "unconditional surrender from Axis powers
At Casablanca Churchill insisted that FDR go to Marrakech and watch the sun set over the Atlas Mountains. Churchill made a painting of the scene and presented it to FDR.
Teheran Conference, Dec The Big Three (FDR, Stalin, Churchill) Coordinated the Soviet offensive with the Allied invasion of France Stalin committed to enter the war against Japan
Yalta Conference, Feb The Big 3 discussed plans for post-war Europe –Germany would be divided into occupation zones (beginning of the Cold War) Soviets agreed to enter the war against Japan 3 months after Germany surrendered and to hold free elections in Poland
Potsdam Conference, July 1945 Truman (US), Stalin (USSR), Atlee (GB) Germany would be demilitarized Korea would be divided Nazi criminals would be tried at Nuremburg Told Japan to surrender unconditionally or be destroyed Truman learned of the successful testing of the atom bomb (kept it secret from Stalin)
Constitutional Issues and the Home Front Main Ideas: 1.The civil rights of Japanese-Americans were violated during the war. 2.The war influenced the development of the civil rights movement. 3.The War began a trend towards big government and more intervention in personal lives. 4. New weapons and scientific developments helped the Allies win the war.
Japanese-American Internment Executive Order #9066: FDR ordered Japanese-Americans living in CA, OR, AZ and WA to relocate to isolated camps –110,000 sent to 10 camps Korematsu v. U.S.: 1944, Supreme Court upheld internment In 1988 the government apologized and paid reparations to survivors.
Relocation order for the City and County of San Francisco
Location of camps
Demographic Changes Women = 35% of work force but earned only 60% of what men earned –Worked in untraditional jobs (Rosie the Riveter) –Lost their jobs after the war ended 43 cities outside the South doubled their African- American population –Racial tension became a national issue Defense industries in the West led to population shifts to the sunbelt
Pictures from Detroit riots, 1943 Worst riots of the decade; FDR sent federal troops; 9 whites, 25 blacks killed.
Demographic Changes Sunbelt population doubled because of electronics and aerospace industries –CA became the most populous state Cities lost population to the suburbs –White Flight –Levittown Baby Boom –Birthrate peaked in 1957; declining ever since
Civil Rights During the War Phillip Randolph (Father of the Civil Rights Movement) cancelled a protest march on Washington at FDRs request in 1941 –FDR established the FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Commission) –James Farmer established Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 1942 Truman ended segregation of the armed forces in 1948 In 1949 a federal law prohibited discrimination in civil service jobs
Phillip Randolph at the Lincoln Memorial
Growth of Government FDR increased the power of the president by establishing new agencies WPB (War Production Board) regulated the use of raw materials OPA (Office of Price Administration) froze consumer prices and set up a system of rationing –Helped control inflation –Controversial because it limited what people could buy
Posters from the OPA helped build support for rationing
Major Scientific Developments Office of Scientific Research and Development coordinated development of new weapons –jet fighters, bombers, rocket guns, radar, sonar, proximity fuse U.S. Army developed the atomic bomb (Manhattan Project) Penicillin and Sulfa drugs helped save lives
End of the War Truman decided to use the atomic bomb because he believed it would end the war quicker and save American lives –Hiroshima and Nagasaki The Marshall Plan provided economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild