2World War II: Prelude to Pearl Harbor, 1931-1941 Main Idea: As dictatorships rose in Asia and Europe, the U.S. tried to remain isolated. Official isolationism ended when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor
3RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE AND ASIA 1925 – Mussolini became dictator in Italy1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria (China)1934 – Hitler seized power in Germany1935 – Italy invaded Ethiopia1936 – Rome-Berlin “Axis” formed1937 – Japan launched full invasion of China (Peking)1938 – Germany invaded Austria; Anschluss (union) proclaimed
4WORLD WAR II BEGINS IN EUROPE 1938 – Munich Conference; Germany occupied the Sudetenland1939 – Germany seized Czechoslovakia1939 – Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pactSept 1, 1939 – Germany invaded Poland1939 – France and Great Britain declare war on Germany
5The U.S. and JapanJapan seized Southern Indochina (including Vietnam) in 1941FDR froze all Japanese assets in the U.S. and placed an embargo on JapanU.S. demanded that Japan remove all forces from China and IndochinaJapan approved an attack on the U.S. on December 1
7The Attack on Pearl Harbor U.S. believed Japan would attack in Malaysia or the PhilippinesSurprise attack on Pearl Harbor came on Sunday, December 7, 19412,323 servicemen killed, 1,100 wounded150 aircraft, 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 3 destroyers sunk or damaged3 aircraft carriers not in port
12World War II: Allied Strategies Main Idea: The Allies postponed an invasion of western Europe until Italy was secured. Meanwhile, in the Pacific, the Allies used the strategy of “island hopping” to get closer to the main Japanese islands.
13EUROPEAN STRATEGY3 days after the U.S. declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.The Allied strategy was get Hitler first, then JapanThe Allies defeated Germany in North Africa (Operation Torch) by 1943Italy surrendered in June 1944
15Defeat of Germany The Soviets moved into Eastern Europe in March 1944 Allies invaded Normandy on D-Day, June 6, 1944 (Operation Overlord)Paris was liberated by AugustIn December the Germans drove the Allies back in Belgium in the Battle of the BulgeAmerican and Soviet forces met in Germany in April, 1945; Germany surrendered on May 7
19Strategy in the Pacific Battle of Midway: Admiral Nimitz defeated a superior Japanese fleet and stopped the Japanese advance in the Pacific (June 1942). 4 Japanese aircraft carriers were sunkIsland Hopping: major Japanese islands were bypassed and air bases were established on smaller islands (started in1943)
22The beginning of the end for Japan Leyte Gulf (Oct. 1944): Most of Japan’s naval fleet defeated. Japan begins to use kamikaze attacks.Iwo Jima (Feb. 1945): Heavily fortified; enabled the U.S. to bomb TokyoOkinawa (April-June 1945): 50,000 American casualties; Japan’s remaining defenses destroyed.
33The Atlantic Charter Meeting In Aug 1941 FDR and Churchill met secretly to plan for the post-war world and created an 8-point document that became the foundation for the United Nations
34THE CASABLANCA CONFERENCE In January, 1943FDR and Churchillrendezvoused inCasablanca todevelop a strategyto satisfy Stalinwho wascomplaining thatthe Allies weredelaying theopening of a 2ndfront in Europe. Itwas the first time aU.S. presidentever left thecountry during awar.The conference's Casablanca Declaration called for the Allies to seek the unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers. It also called for Allied aid to the Soviet Union, the invasion of Sicily and Italy, and the recognition of joint leadership of the Free French by de Gaulle and Giraud. Also decided during the Casablanca Conference was that there would be no "across channel invasion" in Instead of invading Europe across the English Channel, an invasion into Sicily and then Italy would take place.
35Casablanca Conference, Jan. 1943 FDR and Churchill met in French Morocco (Stalin declined invitation)Planned for the invasion of Sicily and Italy (Operation Torch had begun in the summer of 1942)Decided to invade France in 1944Demanded "unconditional surrender“ from Axis powers
36At Casablanca Churchill insisted that FDR go to Marrakech and watch the sun set over the Atlas Mountains. Churchill made a painting of the scene and presented it to FDR.
37Teheran Conference, Dec. 1943 The Big Three (FDR, Stalin, Churchill)Coordinated the Soviet offensive with the Allied invasion of FranceStalin committed to enter the war against Japan
38Yalta Conference, Feb. 1945The Big 3 discussed plans for post-war EuropeGermany would be divided into occupation zones (beginning of the Cold War)Soviets agreed to enter the war against Japan 3 months after Germany surrendered and to hold free elections in Poland
41Potsdam Conference, July 1945 Truman (US), Stalin (USSR), Atlee (GB)Germany would be demilitarizedKorea would be dividedNazi criminals would be tried at NuremburgTold Japan to surrender unconditionally or be destroyedTruman learned of the successful testing of the atom bomb (kept it secret from Stalin)
42Constitutional Issues and the Home Front Main Ideas:The civil rights of Japanese-Americans were violated during the war.The war influenced the development of the civil rights movement.The War began a trend towards big government and more intervention in personal lives.4. New weapons and scientific developments helped the Allies win the war.
43Japanese-American Internment Executive Order #9066: FDR ordered Japanese-Americans living in CA, OR, AZ and WA to relocate to isolated camps110,000 sent to 10 campsKorematsu v. U.S.: 1944, Supreme Court upheld internmentIn 1988 the government apologized and paid reparations to survivors.
44Relocation order for the City and County of San Francisco
47Demographic ChangesWomen = 35% of work force but earned only 60% of what men earnedWorked in untraditional jobs (“Rosie the Riveter”)Lost their jobs after the war ended43 cities outside the South doubled their African-American populationRacial tension became a national issueDefense industries in the West led to population shifts to the “sunbelt”
51Demographic Changes“Sunbelt” population doubled because of electronics and aerospace industriesCA became the most populous stateCities lost population to the suburbs“White Flight”LevittownBaby BoomBirthrate peaked in 1957; declining ever sinceAmericans became more mobile, an average of 30 million people have moved every year since 1945.The region known as the Sunbelt experienced the biggest jump in population. The increase in the Sunbelt doubled that in the Frostbelt (the industrial NE). The Rustbelt refers to the industrial Ohio Valley which suffered a loss of industry. CA became the most populous state with one out of every 8 Americans living here.New jobs included the CA electronics industry, the aerospace industry in Florida and Texas and the huge military installations in the West.White Flight was the move out of the cities to the suburbs. This was due partly to the availability of home loans from the Federal Housing Authority and the Veterans Administration and the standardization of the housing industry. The FHA exacerbated the problem of white flight by limiting loans to African-Americans claiming they were risky loans. The FHA also would not loan to other minority groups who were “unharmonious racial or nationality groups”. One of the earliest suburban development was Levittown on Long Island, New York, built in the 1940s.The baby boom is the most dramatic post-war demographic change. 50 million children were born by the end of the 1950s. The birth rate increased until it crested in 1957 and has been declining ever since. In 1973 the birth rate dropped lower than the rate necessary to maintain existing population figures. This population bubble has had an important effect on American culture and economics and it will severely test the social security system in the next few decades.
52Civil Rights During the War Phillip Randolph (“Father of the Civil Rights Movement”) cancelled a protest march on Washington at FDR’s request in 1941FDR established the FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Commission)James Farmer established Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 1942Truman ended segregation of the armed forces in 1948In 1949 a federal law prohibited discrimination in civil service jobs
54Growth of GovernmentFDR increased the power of the president by establishing new agenciesWPB (War Production Board) regulated the use of raw materialsOPA (Office of Price Administration) froze consumer prices and set up a system of rationingHelped control inflationControversial because it limited what people could buy
55Posters from the OPA helped build support for rationing
56Major Scientific Developments Office of Scientific Research and Development coordinated development of new weaponsjet fighters, bombers, rocket guns, radar, sonar, proximity fuseU.S. Army developed the atomic bomb (Manhattan Project)Penicillin and Sulfa drugs helped save lives
57End of the WarTruman decided to use the atomic bomb because he believed it would end the war quicker and save American livesHiroshima and NagasakiThe Marshall Plan provided economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild