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World War II. Causes of World War II 1. Treaty of Versailles A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations B. War Reparations 1) Allies collect $ to pay.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II. Causes of World War II 1. Treaty of Versailles A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations B. War Reparations 1) Allies collect $ to pay."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II

2 Causes of World War II 1. Treaty of Versailles A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations B. War Reparations 1) Allies collect $ to pay back war debts to U.S. 2) Germany must pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent) 3) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed Germans

3 2. World-wide Depression A. The Depression made Germanys debt even worse B. Desperate people turn to desperate leaders 1) Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germanys problems Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks

4 3. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes A. In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nation Communist Dictatorship (USSR) Totalitarianism Fascist Dictatorship (Germany, Italy) Military Dictatorship (Japan) Fascism: military government with based on racism & nationalism with strong support from the business community

5 4. Isolationism of Major Powers A. Why was the U.S. Isolationist? 1. Great Depression (problems at home) 1. Great Depression (problems at home) 2. Perceptions of WWI 2. Perceptions of WWI a. WWI did not seem to solve much b. People began to think that wed got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy American businessmen!)

6 So What Was Hitler Asking For? Return of German Speaking Lands -LebensraumReturn of German Speaking Lands -Lebensraum Austria - Peacefully Annexed in 1938Austria - Peacefully Annexed in 1938 German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939

7 Munich Conference - Great Britian & France give to Hitler in return for peaceMunich Conference - Great Britian & France give to Hitler in return for peace Sudentenland - (now part of Czech Republic)Sudentenland - (now part of Czech Republic) Hitler then invades the rest of CzechoslovakiaHitler then invades the rest of Czechoslovakia

8 Nonaggression Pact Russia stays out of the war in return for 1/2 of PolandNonaggression Pact Russia stays out of the war in return for 1/2 of Poland Great Britain & France finally declare war on GermanyGreat Britain & France finally declare war on Germany Hitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939

9 How Did Hitler Make War? In the next year, Hitler invades: In the next year, Hitler invades: DenmarkDenmark NorwayNorway The Netherlands, The Netherlands, FranceFrance Hitler in Paris

10 Battle of Stalingrad (June 1941 – January 31, 1943) Germans violated nonaggression pact with Soviet Union and attacked them Hitler hoped to captured Soviet oil fields Germans nearly won (controlled 9/10 of the city) Hitler expected the invasion to take only three months, the tides turned when they hit the winter. Soviets lost 1,100,000 people in this battle From that point on, Soviet army began to move westward towards Germany

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12 Normandy Invasion (D-Day) June 6, 1944 June 6, 1944 During this time, Soviet Union was pushing into Poland and Allies were pushing North in Italy During this time, Soviet Union was pushing into Poland and Allies were pushing North in Italy Generals Dwight D. Eisenhower and George Patton influential in leading attack Generals Dwight D. Eisenhower and George Patton influential in leading attack 3 million ally troops to attack 3 million ally troops to attack

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14 D – Day 60 mile stretch of beach 60 mile stretch of beach 156,000 troops 156,000 troops 4,000 landing craft 4,000 landing craft 600 warships 600 warships 11,000 planes 11,000 planes Largest land-sea-air operation in history Largest land-sea-air operation in history Omaha beach known as one of the most Omaha beach known as one of the most brutal areas brutal areas

15 Battle of the Bulge December 16, 1944 December 16, 1944 German tanks broke through American lines (80 mile front) German tanks broke through American lines (80 mile front) Fought in Belgium - Germany was trying to capture Antwerp Fought in Belgium - Germany was trying to capture Antwerp Very brutal war - one of the most extensive of U.S. military (120 American GIs captured and mowed down by SS machine guns and pistols) Very brutal war - one of the most extensive of U.S. military (120 American GIs captured and mowed down by SS machine guns and pistols)

16 Germans were winning in the beginning Germans were winning in the beginning 120,000 Germans died (also lost 600 tanks and guns and 1,600 planes – leading to defeat)) 120,000 Germans died (also lost 600 tanks and guns and 1,600 planes – leading to defeat)) 80,000 Americans died 80,000 Americans died Americans won, but were close to losing Americans won, but were close to losing

17 The end of Hitler April 30, 1945 Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide (gun shot and cyanide)April 30, 1945 Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide (gun shot and cyanide) Bodies burned in streetBodies burned in street Cover of Time magazine May 7, 1945Cover of Time magazine May 7, 1945

18 V-E Day May 8, 1945 May 8, 1945 General Eisenhower accepted a surrender by the Third Reich General Eisenhower accepted a surrender by the Third Reich V-E day = Victory in Europe day V-E day = Victory in Europe day 1 st part of War was over 1 st part of War was over

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20 July – August 1945July – August 1945 Truman, (Churchill and then Clement Atlee) and Stalin met in Potsdam, GermanyTruman, (Churchill and then Clement Atlee) and Stalin met in Potsdam, Germany Drew up a blueprint to disarm Germany and eliminate the Nazi regimeDrew up a blueprint to disarm Germany and eliminate the Nazi regime Divided Germany into 4 sections (occupied by France, Britain, U.S. and Soviet Union)Divided Germany into 4 sections (occupied by France, Britain, U.S. and Soviet Union) Berlin to be divided up in East (or Soviet Germany)Berlin to be divided up in East (or Soviet Germany) Set up the Nuremberg Trials to persecute Nazi leadersSet up the Nuremberg Trials to persecute Nazi leaders Japan must unconditionally surrenderJapan must unconditionally surrender

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22 Nuremberg Trials International tribunal court tried Nazi officialsInternational tribunal court tried Nazi officials Over 23 nations tried Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg, GermanyOver 23 nations tried Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg, Germany 12 of the 22 defendants were sentenced to death12 of the 22 defendants were sentenced to death 200 other officials were found guilty, but give lesser sentences200 other officials were found guilty, but give lesser sentences

23 V-J Day August 15, 1945: Japan offers unconditional surrenderAugust 15, 1945: Japan offers unconditional surrender September 2, 1945: V-J Day = Victory in Japan Day (Formal surrender)September 2, 1945: V-J Day = Victory in Japan Day (Formal surrender)

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