Presentation on theme: "The War in Europe Part B. Marshall Prepares for Invasion A) George Marshall, FDR’s Chief of Staff and highest ranking general, wanted the US to invade."— Presentation transcript:
Marshall Prepares for Invasion A) George Marshall, FDR’s Chief of Staff and highest ranking general, wanted the US to invade Western Europe; he convinced the British to agree in 1943 to take part in “Operation Overlord”.
Ground Commander: Eisenhower 1) He chose Gen. Dwight Eisenhower to be commander of “Operation Overlord”.
Getting Ready for the Big Day 2) To begin the operation, the Allies built up their forces in southern England; the troops were from the US, Britain, France, Canada, Poland, the Netherlands, and Belgium. 3) The Nazis knew what was going on, and fortified the French coast by setting up machine gun nests, mines, barbed wire, and other obstacles.
Invading Europe at France B) D-Day: The successful June 6, 1944 invasion of Western Europe by the Allied forces. 1) Shortly after midnight, 4,600 craft and warships, 1,000 RAF bombers, 1,000 US planes, and 23,000 soldiers attacked Nazi holdings along the French coast.
D-Day: Results 2) 150,000 Allied troops got off boats on Normandy Beach. a. At Omaha Beach, one landing site, Americans suffered 2,000 casualties.
Taking Back France A) The Allies began to push back the Nazis in an effort to liberate France. 1) Patton used a blitzkrieg on the Nazis at Normandy, then continued to take N. France. 2) The French Resistance and French troops took back Paris on August 25, 1944. 3) Charles de Gaulle returned to France to take over its government.
Taking Hitler’s Territories B) British and Canadian troops took part of Belgium shortly after Paris was liberated; the Allies continued to push into the Netherlands and even into part of Germany. 1) The Nazis stopped the Allies at the Netherlands at the Rhine River. a. The Nazis, in a need for soldiers, began to draft 15-year-olds.
Nazi Offensive at Ardennes C) In December 1944, Nazi troops punched a hole into the Allied line by attacking US troops, who ended up falling back.
Battle of the Bulge (at Ardennes) 1) Battle of the Bulge: Allied victory and largest battle of WWII in Europe. a. It was the largest battle ever fought by the US…600,000 GIs fought, and there were 80,000 American casualties. b. Patton’s troops moved in to help stop the Nazi advance. c. Gen. Omar Bradley commanded US troops to defeat the Nazis.
Closing in on the Nazis A) In March 1944, Bradley and his troops moved toward Berlin from the west while Soviets moved in from the East.
The Brutality of War 1) The fighting between the Nazis and Soviets was the deadliest in the war; 11 million Soviets and 3 million Nazis died. a. Overall, the Soviets lost about 18 million civilians and soldiers. B) The Soviets felt entitled to take Berlin; they marched on the defeated city. 1) Some of its army met with the Americans on April 25, 1945 in Berlin.
As the Allies Closed In… C) Hitler hid in an underground bunker in Berlin, surrounded by some of his still-loyal followers, like his secretary Martin Bormann, propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, and Goebbels’ family.
The End for Hitler 1) In his last days, Hitler married his mistress (Eva Braun), celebrated his last birthday, killed his favorite dog, and committed suicide with Braun (on April 30).
From the Bunker… 2) The Goebbels poisoned their children and then committed suicide. 3) Bormann fled at Hitler’s suggestion; he was likely crushed in a subway.
After Hitler’s Death D) By May 8, 1945, the Nazi troops and leaders had surrendered. 1) Hitler’s henchmen, Herman Goering and Heinrich Himmler, were captured. a. Himmler committed suicide before the trial, and Goering did so after his trial. b. Some of Himmler’s highest ranking SS officers committed suicide.
Taking Apart the Nazi Military 2) Military leaders Admiral Karl Donitz and General Alfred Jodl were captured. a. Donitz got ten years in jail; Jodl was executed after a trial. 3) Albert Speer, Hitler’s architect and minister of armaments and war production, was captured and sentenced to prison.
Celebration! E) V-E Day: Victory in Europe Day for the Allied Powers. It was May 8, 1945.
US, USSR, and Britain A) Big Three: FDR, Stalin, and Churchill. 1) They first met as a full group at the Tehran Conference in Iran at the end of 1943.
Yalta B) At the Yalta Conference in the USSR in February 1945, the Big Three met again to plan Germany’s defeat and the goals for the postwar era.
Deals at Yalta 1) They agreed to split Germany into four zones, each controlled by an Allied Power. a. They agreed to split Berlin into four zones.
Stalin Lied 2) Stalin promised free elections for E. European nations and to fight against Japan within three months of Germany’s surrender. a. Stalin did not keep his promises about free elections, which would contribute to the coming Cold War, beginning in 1946.