4B. Human Costs Quick Facts 50 million people died (compared to 15 million in WWI)21.3 million Russians (7.7 million civilians)11 million died as a result of the HOLOCAUST (6 million Jews + 5 million others)
5When?US involvement193919411945Sept.1 - Germany invades Poland (official start to the war)Sept. 3 -Britain & France declare war on GermanyDec. 7 – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the WarMay - Germans SurrenderSept. - Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japanese Surrender
6Axis Allies Who? (major powers) (major powers) Great Britain Germany RussiaItalyUnited StatesJapanFrance(note: France surrendered to Germany in 1940 (after 6 weeks of fighting)
8Major Leaders Hideki Tojo Winston Churchill Japanese Prime Minister British Prime Minister
9Franklin Delano Roosevelt Major LeadersJoseph StalinRussian LeaderFranklin Delano RooseveltUS President
10Why? (underlying causes of WWII) 1. Treaty of VersaillesA. Germany lost land to surrounding nationsB. War Reparations1) Allies collect $ to pay back war debts to U.S.2) Germany must pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent)3) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed GermansLloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson during negotiations for the Treaty
12Why? (underlying causes of WWII) 2. World-wide DepressionA. The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse (inflation)B. Desperate people turn to desperate leaders1) Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germany’s problemsWallpapering with German Deutchmarks
14Why? (underlying causes of WWII) 2. World-wide Depression2) Hitler provided scapegoats for Germany’s problems (foreigners, Jews, communists, Roma (Gypsies), mentally ill, homosexuals) 3) Kristallnacht - vandalism & destruction of Jewish property & synagogues
15Why? 3. Rise of Totalitarian Regimes A. In a Totalitarian country, individual rights are not viewed as important as the needs of the nationCommunist Dictatorship (USSR)Fascist Dictatorship (Germany, Italy)Fascism: military government with based on racism & nationalism with strong support from the business communityTotalitarianismMilitary Dictatorship (Japan)
16Why? 4. Isolationism of Major Powers A. Why was the U.S. Isolationist? 1. Great Depression (problems at home)2. Perceptions of WWIa. WWI did not seem to solve muchb. People began to think that we’d got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy American businessmen!)
17Why? 4. Isolationism of Major Powers 3. Opposition to war (Pacifism) a. Washington Conference - Limits on size of country's naviesb. Kellogg-Briand pact - condemned war as a way to solving conflicts
18Why? 4. Isolationism of Major Powers B. This led to policies of “Appeasement”1. Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else2. Begins with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continues with Hitler . . .
19Border of Czechoslovakia( Sudetenland) – Sept., 1938 Austria – March, 1938Border of Czechoslovakia( Sudetenland) – Sept., 1938All of Czechoslovakia – March, 1939Poland – Sept., 1939By Summer of 1940, Germany Controlled Most of Europe
20So What Was Hitler Asking For? Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum”Austria - Peacefully Annexed in 1938German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939
21So What Was Hitler Asking For? Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum”Sudentenland - (now part of Czech Republic)Munich Conference - Great Britain & France give to Hitler in return for peaceHitler then invades the rest of CzechoslovakiaGerman Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939
22So What Was Hitler Asking For? Return of German Speaking LandsNonaggression Pact Russia stays out of the war in return for 1/2 of PolandGreat Britain & France finally declare war on GermanyHitler's triumphal entry into Danzig, Poland 1939
23How Did Hitler Make War? Blitzkrieg “Lightning War” In the next year, Hitler invades:DenmarkNorwayThe Netherlands,FranceHitler in Paris
24US Assistance Roosevelt provided aid to the Allies: Lend-Lease - 1939 US “lent” war materials to cash-strapped Great BritainAtlantic CharterUS secretly meets with England to commit to defeating GermanyLondon Firefighter Tackles an Air Raid Blaze
25Meanwhile … in the Pacific Pearl Harbor: “a date which will live in infamy”What?Surprise attack by the Japanese on American forces in Pearl Harbor, HawaiiEffect?US declares war on Japan & other Axis powersActivityUSS Arizona Sinking in Pearl Harbor
26Produced more and more airplanes, tanks, and other war supplies Created new jobs World War II ended the Great Depression Women took over many of the jobs Power of the federal government grew Rationing, or limited what Americans could buy so supplies could be sent overseas.
27Some military leaders distrusted Japanese Americans Were afraid they would help the “enemy”Roosevelt ordered 110,000 Japanese Americans into “relocation camps”Like prisons, fenced in with barbed wireSoldiers guarded the camps with gunsHad to sell their homes, businesses, and belongings.