Presentation on theme: "Human Development: Nature Jennifer Boyd, M.S.. Developmental Psychology The systematic study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the lifespan."— Presentation transcript:
Human Development: Nature Jennifer Boyd, M.S.
Developmental Psychology The systematic study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the lifespan. Nature v. Nurture Develop – the process of natural growth, differentiation, or evolution by successive changes.
Part I: Nature Genetics & Genes Heredity Chromosomes Developmental Disorders Congenital Disorders Pre-natal Development Biology (Predispositions) Part II: Nurture Cognition Environment Caregivers Attachment Post-Natal factors Education Culture Religion Nutrition Nature v. Nurture
Biological Influences Geneticsthe branch of biology that deals with heredity; study of genes and how they influence biological development. GenesA unit of DNA on a chromosome that encodes instructions for making a particular protein molecule; the basic unit of heredity. Hereditythe sum of the characteristics; the genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring. ChromosomeDNA-containing structure that make up the genes; located in the nucleus of a cell. 22 pairs autosomes, & 1 pair sex chrom. Sex Chromosomeassociated with male or female sex characteristics; governs the inheritance of various sex-linked and sex-limited characteristics XX = female XY = male
A karyotype is a representation of chromosomal characteristics XX = female XY = male
Developmental Disorders: An abnormality or disruption of the normal process of development Disorders we will cover: Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Kleinfelters Syndrome Turners Syndrome Down Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
2 Systems of Gonad Development 1.MÜllerian Systemembryonic precursors of the female internal sex organs (ovaries); needs no stimulus to start developing. 2.Wolffian System embryonic precursors of the male internal sex organs (testes); needs stimulus from SRY. ** If any step in this system goes awry, nature will abandon this system, and resort to the MÜllerian System. –SRY gene on Y chromosome that instructs fetal gonads to become testes (leads to developing androgen) –Anti-MÜllerian Hormone peptide secreted by fetal testes that inhibits the development of the MÜllerian system, which would otherwise become female internal sex organs. If this is not fully working, the Wolffian System can degenerate. –AndrogenMale sex hormone; testosterone is the principal mammalian androgen; needed to develop external sex organs of the male. If there is not enough being produced, external organs may partially develop or not develop at all.
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome AIS Genetic disorder that makes XY fetuses insensitive to androgens Types: CAIS (Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) 46, XY MAIS (Mild Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) 46, XY PAIS (Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) 46, XY Externally – female, with a short-blind pouch vagina and breasts. Internallymale; undecended testes (because of SRY). No female organs (i.e. ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes).
Genotype: XY (Male) Phenotype: Female Characteristics: Long, well-developed legs Greater than average height for a female Flawless complexion (no hormone-driven acne at puberty) Physique often more angular and "athletic" than average female
Genotype: XXY or XXXY Incidence:1/1000 males Characteristics: Infertility, no production of sperm, enlarged breasts, small firm testicles, small penis, sparse facial and body hair. Abnormal body proportions (long legs and a short trunk). Kleinfelters Syndrome
Genotype: XO (monosomy X) Incidence:1/2500 males Characteristics: Physical abnormalities like short stature, broad chest, low hairline, low-set ears, and webbed neck. Infertility and amenorrhea persists. Usually 90% of fetuses with Turners result in miscarriage. Turners Syndrome
Genotype: XX, or XY (trisomy 21) Incidence:1/800 babies Characteristics: Chromosomal abnormality (congenital, not inherited). Correlated with older parental age (maternal). Brain is 10% lighter; mental retardation is usually present. Brain degenerates around age 30 (symptoms mimic Alzheimers). Down Syndrome
Types: FAS, ARND, and ARBD Facts: 1/8 pregnant women report alcohol use (CDC, 2011). No distinct amount of alcohol causes FASD. Alcohol disrupts the normal brain development by interfering with neural adhesion protein, which guides neurons in the brain to develop Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Characteristics: Abnormal facial features, such as a smooth ridge between the nose and upper lip (this ridge is called the philtrum) Small head size Shorter-than-average height Low body weight Poor coordination Hyperactive behavior Difficulty paying attention Poor memory Difficulty in school (especially with math) Learning disabilities Speech and language delays Intellectual disability or low IQ Poor reasoning and judgment skills Sleep and sucking problems as a baby Vision or hearing problems Problems with the heart, kidneys, or bones
Prenatal Development page 258 Period of Cleavage (Zygote Stage) 1-2 weeks Period of the Embryo (Embryonic Stage) 3-8weeks **Most crucial stage Period of the Fetus (Fetal Stage) 9-28 weeks
Neonatal Development Reflexesbuilt in (programmed) survival responses. Perception and Motor Development. Temperamenthereditary behavioral style or characteristic way of responding to environment. 3 Types: Easy Difficult Slow-to-Warm up Language – Noam Chomsky suggests that we are biologically programmed to learn and use language.
Part II: Nurture Jean Piagets Cognitive Development 1.Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Senses & learning; object permanence 2.Preoperational (2-7) Pretend, Egocentric, etc. 3.Concrete Operational (7-11) Logic abstract, conservation, etc. 4.Formal Operational (11/12+) Logic concrete, systematic, world.
Erik Erickson Psychosocial Developmental Stages 1. Trust v. Mistrust (Birth-1 yr) 2. Autonomy v. Shame and doubt (1-3) 3. Initiative v. Guilt (3-6) 4. Industry v. Inferiority (6-puberty) 5. Identity v. Role confusion (adolescence) 6. Intimacy v. Isolation (young adult) 7. Generativity v. Stagnation (middle age) 8. Ego integrity v. Despair (late adulthood) P. 251
Maria Montessori 1 st female doctor in Italy. Opened first school 1907, Casa dei Bambini. Studied uneducadable or unhappy little ones (i.e. children with MR) Developed methods and pedagogy that helped bring these children to above average. Our aim is not only to make the child understand, and still less to force him to memorize, but so to touch his imagination as to enthuse him to his innermost core.
Montessori Schools V. Traditional Schools Past & Present
Attachment Harry Harlow –Separation Anxiety & Stranger Anxiety Mary Ainsworth –Quality of Attachment, 4 Patterns: Secure, avoidant, resistant, and disorganized/disoriented
Lifespan Development & Caregiving Socializationprocess of learning socially acceptable behaviors, attitudes, and values. Parental Styles –Authoritarian –Authoritative –Permissive
Death and Dying Elisabeth K Ü bler- Ross 5 Stages of Death: Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Cultures and religion Terminally ill –Passive v. Active euthanasia Counseling & Hospice Care Dignity v. Despair
Text Readings Lev Vygotsky, page 246 Erikson Psychosocial Stages, page 251 Negative Influences on Prenatal Development, page 253 Temperament and Attachment, pages Peer Relationships, page 261
Group Discussion Can we increase Intelligence using in-utero techniques? What are the Pros and Cons of Gene Therapy? What dictates Gender Roles? –Nature (androgens, genetics) –Nurture (toys, modeling, etc)