2 Developmental Psychology The systematic study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the lifespan.Nature v. NurtureDevelop – the process of natural growth, differentiation, or evolution by successive changes.
3 Nature v. Nurture Part I: Nature Part II: Nurture Genetics & Genes HeredityChromosomesDevelopmental DisordersCongenital DisordersPre-natal DevelopmentBiology (Predispositions)CognitionEnvironmentCaregiver’sAttachmentPost-Natal factorsEducationCultureReligionNutrition
4 Biological Influences Genetics—the branch of biology that deals with heredity; study of genes and how they influence biological development.Genes—A unit of DNA on a chromosome that encodes instructions for making a particular protein molecule; the basic unit of heredity.Heredity—the sum of the characteristics; the genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring.Chromosome—DNA-containing structure that make up the genes; located in the nucleus of a cell. 22 pairs autosomes, & 1 pair sex chrom.Sex Chromosome—associated with male or female sex characteristics; governs the inheritance of various sex-linked and sex-limited characteristicsXX = femaleXY = male
5 A karyotype is a representation of chromosomal characteristics XX = femaleXY = male
6 Developmental Disorders: An abnormality or disruption of the normal process of development Disorder’s we will cover:Androgen Insensitivity SyndromeKleinfelter’s SyndromeTurner’s SyndromeDown SyndromeFetal Alcohol Syndrome
7 2 Systems of Gonad Development MÜllerian System—embryonic precursors of the female internal sex organs (ovaries); needs no stimulus to start developing.Wolffian System —embryonic precursors of the male internal sex organs (testes); needs stimulus from SRY. **If any step in this system goes awry, nature will abandon this system, and resort to the MÜllerian System.SRY —gene on Y chromosome that instructs fetal gonads to become testes (leads to developing androgen)Anti-MÜllerian Hormone —peptide secreted by fetal testes that inhibits the development of the MÜllerian system, which would otherwise become female internal sex organs. If this is not fully working, the Wolffian System can degenerate.Androgen—Male sex hormone; testosterone is the principal mammalian androgen; needed to develop external sex organs of the male. If there is not enough being produced, external organs may partially develop or not develop at all.
8 Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome AIS Genetic disorder that makes XY fetuses insensitive to androgensTypes: CAIS (Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) 46, XYMAIS (Mild Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) 46, XYPAIS (Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) 46, XYExternally – female, with a short-blind pouch vagina and breasts.Internally—male; undecended testes (because of SRY).No female organs (i.e. ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes).
9 Genotype: XY (Male)Phenotype: FemaleCharacteristics:Long, well-developed legsGreater than average height for a femaleFlawless complexion (no hormone-driven acne at puberty)Physique often more angular and "athletic" than average female
10 Kleinfelter’s Syndrome Genotype: XXY or XXXYIncidence:1/1000 malesCharacteristics:Infertility, no production of sperm, enlarged breasts, small firm testicles, small penis, sparse facial and body hair. Abnormal body proportions (long legs and a short trunk).
11 Turner’s Syndrome Genotype: XO (monosomy X) Incidence:1/2500 males Characteristics:Physical abnormalities like short stature, broad chest, low hairline, low-set ears, and webbed neck. Infertility and amenorrhea persists. Usually 90% of fetuses with Turner’s result in miscarriage.
12 Down Syndrome Genotype: XX, or XY (trisomy 21) Incidence:1/800 babies Characteristics:Chromosomal abnormality (congenital, not inherited).Correlated with older parental age (maternal).Brain is 10% lighter; mental retardation is usually present.Brain degenerates around age 30 (symptoms mimic Alzheimer’s).Indicence rises with maternal age:35 = 1/40040 = 110/40045 = 35/400Among the most common traits are: *Muscle hypotonia, low muscle tone *Flat facial profile, a somewhat depressed nasal bridge and a small nose *Oblique palpebral fissures, an upward slant to the eyes *Dysplastic ear, an abnormal shape of the ear *Simian crease, a single deep crease across the center of the palm *Hyperflexibility, an excessive ability to extend the joints *Dysplastic middle phalanx of the fifth finger, fifth finger has one flexion furrow instead of two *Epicanthal folds, small skin folds on the inner corner of the eyes *Excessive space between large and second toe *Enlargement of tongue in relationship to size of mouthAll people with Down syndrome have some level of mental retardation; however, the level usually falls into the mild to moderate range .Children with Down syndrome learn to sit, walk, talk, play, toilet train and do most other activities--only somewhat later than others. Speech is often delayed.
13 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Types:FAS, ARND, and ARBDFacts:1/8 pregnant women report alcohol use (CDC, 2011).No distinct amount of alcohol causes FASD.Alcohol disrupts the normal brain development by interfering with neural adhesion protein, which guides neurons in the brain to developCharacteristics:Abnormal facial features, such as a smooth ridge between the nose and upper lip (this ridge is called the philtrum)Small head sizeShorter-than-average heightLow body weightPoor coordinationHyperactive behaviorDifficulty paying attentionPoor memoryDifficulty in school (especially with math)Learning disabilitiesSpeech and language delaysIntellectual disability or low IQPoor reasoning and judgment skillsSleep and sucking problems as a babyVision or hearing problemsProblems with the heart, kidneys, or bones
14 Prenatal Development page 258 Period of Cleavage (Zygote Stage)1-2 weeksPeriod of the Embryo (Embryonic Stage)3-8weeks**Most crucial stagePeriod of the Fetus (Fetal Stage)9-28 weeks
15 Neonatal DevelopmentReflexes—built in (programmed) survival responses.Perception and Motor Development.Temperament—hereditary behavioral style or characteristic way of responding to environment.3 Types:EasyDifficultSlow-to-Warm upLanguage – Noam Chomsky suggests that we are biologically programmed to learn and use language.
16 Part II: Nurture Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Sensorimotor (0-2 years)Senses & learning; object permanencePreoperational (2-7)Pretend, Egocentric, etc.Concrete Operational (7-11)Logic abstract, conservation, etc.Formal Operational (11/12+)Logic concrete, systematic, world.
17 Erik Erickson Psychosocial Developmental Stages Trust v. Mistrust (Birth-1 yr)Autonomy v. Shame and doubt (1-3)Initiative v. Guilt (3-6)Industry v. Inferiority (6-puberty)Identity v. Role confusion (adolescence)Intimacy v. Isolation (young adult)Generativity v. Stagnation (middle age)Ego integrity v. Despair (late adulthood)P. 251
18 Maria Montessori 1st female doctor in Italy. Opened first school 1907, Casa dei Bambini.Studied “uneducadable” or “unhappy little ones” (i.e. children with MR)Developed methods andpedagogy that helped bringthese children to above average.“Our aim is not only to make the child understand, and still less to force him to memorize, but so to touch his imagination as to enthuse him to his innermost core”.PedagogyAside from a new pedagogy, among the premier contributions to educational thought by Montessori are:instruction of children in 3-year age groups, corresponding to sensitive periods of development (example: Birth-3, 3-6, 6-9, 9-12, year olds with an Erdkinder (German for "Land Children") program for early teenschildren as competent beings, encouraged to make maximal decisionsobservation of the child in the prepared environment as the basis for ongoing curriculum development (presentation of subsequent exercises for skill development and information accumulation)small, child-sized furniture and creation of a small, child-sized environment (microcosm) in which each can be competent to produce overall a self-running small children's worldcreation of a scale of sensitive periods of development, which provides a focus for class work that is appropriate and uniquely stimulating and motivating to the child (including sensitive periods for language development, sensorial experimentation and refinement, and various levels of social interaction)the importance of the "absorbent mind," the limitless motivation of the young child to achieve competence over his or her environment and to perfect his or her skills and understandings as they occur within each sensitive period. The phenomenon is characterized by the young child's capacity for repetition of activities within sensitive period categories (Example: exhaustive babbling as language practice leading to language competence).self-correcting "auto-didactic" materials (some based on work of Jean Marc Gaspard Itard and Edouard Seguin)
20 Attachment Harry Harlow Separation Anxiety & Stranger Anxiety Mary AinsworthQuality of Attachment, 4 Patterns:Secure, avoidant, resistant, and disorganized/disoriented
21 Lifespan Development & Caregiving Socialization—process of learning socially acceptable behaviors, attitudes, and values.Parental StylesAuthoritarianAuthoritativePermissive
22 Death and Dying Cultures and religion Terminally ill Elisabeth KÜbler-Ross5 Stages of Death:DenialAngerBargainingDepressionAcceptanceCultures and religionTerminally illPassive v. Active euthanasiaCounseling & Hospice CareDignity v. Despair
23 Text Readings Lev Vygotsky, page 246 Erikson Psychosocial Stages, page 251Negative Influences on Prenatal Development, page 253Temperament and Attachment, pagesPeer Relationships, page 261
24 Group DiscussionCan we increase Intelligence using in-utero techniques?What are the Pros and Cons of Gene Therapy?What dictates Gender Roles?Nature (androgens, genetics)Nurture (toys, modeling, etc)