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Human Development: Nature

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Presentation on theme: "Human Development: Nature"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Development: Nature
Jennifer Boyd, M.S.

2 Developmental Psychology
The systematic study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the lifespan. Nature v. Nurture Develop – the process of natural growth, differentiation, or evolution by successive changes.

3 Nature v. Nurture Part I: Nature Part II: Nurture Genetics & Genes
Heredity Chromosomes Developmental Disorders Congenital Disorders Pre-natal Development Biology (Predispositions) Cognition Environment Caregiver’s Attachment Post-Natal factors Education Culture Religion Nutrition

4 Biological Influences
Genetics—the branch of biology that deals with heredity; study of genes and how they influence biological development. Genes—A unit of DNA on a chromosome that encodes instructions for making a particular protein molecule; the basic unit of heredity. Heredity—the sum of the characteristics; the genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring. Chromosome—DNA-containing structure that make up the genes; located in the nucleus of a cell. 22 pairs autosomes, & 1 pair sex chrom. Sex Chromosome—associated with male or female sex characteristics; governs the inheritance of various sex-linked and sex-limited characteristics XX = female XY = male

5 A karyotype is a representation of chromosomal characteristics
XX = female XY = male

6 Developmental Disorders: An abnormality or disruption of the normal process of development
Disorder’s we will cover: Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Kleinfelter’s Syndrome Turner’s Syndrome Down Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

7 2 Systems of Gonad Development
MÜllerian System—embryonic precursors of the female internal sex organs (ovaries); needs no stimulus to start developing. Wolffian System —embryonic precursors of the male internal sex organs (testes); needs stimulus from SRY. **If any step in this system goes awry, nature will abandon this system, and resort to the MÜllerian System. SRY —gene on Y chromosome that instructs fetal gonads to become testes (leads to developing androgen) Anti-MÜllerian Hormone —peptide secreted by fetal testes that inhibits the development of the MÜllerian system, which would otherwise become female internal sex organs. If this is not fully working, the Wolffian System can degenerate. Androgen—Male sex hormone; testosterone is the principal mammalian androgen; needed to develop external sex organs of the male. If there is not enough being produced, external organs may partially develop or not develop at all.

8 Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome AIS
Genetic disorder that makes XY fetuses insensitive to androgens Types: CAIS (Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) 46, XY MAIS (Mild Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) 46, XY PAIS (Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome) 46, XY Externally – female, with a short-blind pouch vagina and breasts. Internally—male; undecended testes (because of SRY). No female organs (i.e. ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes).

9 Genotype: XY (Male) Phenotype: Female Characteristics: Long, well-developed legs Greater than average height for a female Flawless complexion (no hormone-driven acne at puberty) Physique often more angular and "athletic" than average female

10 Kleinfelter’s Syndrome
Genotype: XXY or XXXY Incidence:1/1000 males Characteristics: Infertility, no production of sperm, enlarged breasts, small firm testicles, small penis, sparse facial and body hair. Abnormal body proportions (long legs and a short trunk).

11 Turner’s Syndrome Genotype: XO (monosomy X) Incidence:1/2500 males
Characteristics: Physical abnormalities like short stature, broad chest, low hairline, low-set ears, and webbed neck. Infertility and amenorrhea persists. Usually 90% of fetuses with Turner’s result in miscarriage.

12 Down Syndrome Genotype: XX, or XY (trisomy 21) Incidence:1/800 babies
Characteristics: Chromosomal abnormality (congenital, not inherited). Correlated with older parental age (maternal). Brain is 10% lighter; mental retardation is usually present. Brain degenerates around age 30 (symptoms mimic Alzheimer’s). Indicence rises with maternal age: 35 = 1/400 40 = 110/400 45 = 35/400 Among the most common traits are: *Muscle hypotonia, low muscle tone *Flat facial profile, a somewhat depressed nasal bridge and a small nose *Oblique palpebral fissures, an upward slant to the eyes *Dysplastic ear, an abnormal shape of the ear *Simian crease, a single deep crease across the center of the palm *Hyperflexibility, an excessive ability to extend the joints *Dysplastic middle phalanx of the fifth finger, fifth finger has one flexion furrow instead of two *Epicanthal folds, small skin folds on the inner corner of the eyes *Excessive space between large and second toe *Enlargement of tongue in relationship to size of mouth All people with Down syndrome have some level of mental retardation; however, the level usually falls into the mild to moderate range .Children with Down syndrome learn to sit, walk, talk, play, toilet train and do most other activities--only somewhat later than others. Speech is often delayed.

13 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)
Types: FAS, ARND, and ARBD Facts: 1/8 pregnant women report alcohol use (CDC, 2011). No distinct amount of alcohol causes FASD. Alcohol disrupts the normal brain development by interfering with neural adhesion protein, which guides neurons in the brain to develop Characteristics: Abnormal facial features, such as a smooth ridge between the nose and upper lip (this ridge is called the philtrum) Small head size Shorter-than-average height Low body weight Poor coordination Hyperactive behavior Difficulty paying attention Poor memory Difficulty in school (especially with math) Learning disabilities Speech and language delays Intellectual disability or low IQ Poor reasoning and judgment skills Sleep and sucking problems as a baby Vision or hearing problems Problems with the heart, kidneys, or bones

14 Prenatal Development page 258
Period of Cleavage (Zygote Stage) 1-2 weeks Period of the Embryo (Embryonic Stage) 3-8weeks **Most crucial stage Period of the Fetus (Fetal Stage) 9-28 weeks

15 Neonatal Development Reflexes—built in (programmed) survival responses. Perception and Motor Development. Temperament—hereditary behavioral style or characteristic way of responding to environment. 3 Types: Easy Difficult Slow-to-Warm up Language – Noam Chomsky suggests that we are biologically programmed to learn and use language.

16 Part II: Nurture Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Senses & learning; object permanence Preoperational (2-7) Pretend, Egocentric, etc. Concrete Operational (7-11) Logic abstract, conservation, etc. Formal Operational (11/12+) Logic concrete, systematic, world.

17 Erik Erickson Psychosocial Developmental Stages
Trust v. Mistrust (Birth-1 yr) Autonomy v. Shame and doubt (1-3) Initiative v. Guilt (3-6) Industry v. Inferiority (6-puberty) Identity v. Role confusion (adolescence) Intimacy v. Isolation (young adult) Generativity v. Stagnation (middle age) Ego integrity v. Despair (late adulthood) P. 251

18 Maria Montessori 1st female doctor in Italy.
Opened first school 1907, Casa dei Bambini. Studied “uneducadable” or “unhappy little ones” (i.e. children with MR) Developed methods and pedagogy that helped bring these children to above average. “Our aim is not only to make the child understand, and still less to force him to memorize, but so to touch his imagination as to enthuse him to his innermost core”. Pedagogy Aside from a new pedagogy, among the premier contributions to educational thought by Montessori are: instruction of children in 3-year age groups, corresponding to sensitive periods of development (example: Birth-3, 3-6, 6-9, 9-12, year olds with an Erdkinder (German for "Land Children") program for early teens children as competent beings, encouraged to make maximal decisions observation of the child in the prepared environment as the basis for ongoing curriculum development (presentation of subsequent exercises for skill development and information accumulation) small, child-sized furniture and creation of a small, child-sized environment (microcosm) in which each can be competent to produce overall a self-running small children's world creation of a scale of sensitive periods of development, which provides a focus for class work that is appropriate and uniquely stimulating and motivating to the child (including sensitive periods for language development, sensorial experimentation and refinement, and various levels of social interaction) the importance of the "absorbent mind," the limitless motivation of the young child to achieve competence over his or her environment and to perfect his or her skills and understandings as they occur within each sensitive period. The phenomenon is characterized by the young child's capacity for repetition of activities within sensitive period categories (Example: exhaustive babbling as language practice leading to language competence). self-correcting "auto-didactic" materials (some based on work of Jean Marc Gaspard Itard and Edouard Seguin)

19 Montessori Schools V. Traditional Schools Past & Present

20 Attachment Harry Harlow Separation Anxiety & Stranger Anxiety
Mary Ainsworth Quality of Attachment, 4 Patterns: Secure, avoidant, resistant, and disorganized/disoriented

21 Lifespan Development & Caregiving
Socialization—process of learning socially acceptable behaviors, attitudes, and values. Parental Styles Authoritarian Authoritative Permissive

22 Death and Dying Cultures and religion Terminally ill
Elisabeth KÜbler-Ross 5 Stages of Death: Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Cultures and religion Terminally ill Passive v. Active euthanasia Counseling & Hospice Care Dignity v. Despair

23 Text Readings Lev Vygotsky, page 246
Erikson Psychosocial Stages, page 251 Negative Influences on Prenatal Development, page 253 Temperament and Attachment, pages Peer Relationships, page 261

24 Group Discussion Can we increase Intelligence using in-utero techniques? What are the Pros and Cons of Gene Therapy? What dictates Gender Roles? Nature (androgens, genetics) Nurture (toys, modeling, etc)

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