Presentation on theme: "Verbs, Verbs and More Verbs"— Presentation transcript:
1Verbs, Verbs and More Verbs GRAMMAR ROCKS: PART IIVerbs, Verbs and More Verbs
2REMEMBER THAT VERBS State action State being Ms. K drank twenty liters of lemonade and ate nineteen boxes of Coco Puffs.State beingMs. K is bloated and very tired from her binge.
3THERE ARE 4 KINDS OF VERBS But instead of listing them all here (which is very, very scary) let’s discuss one at a time.Look what happened when thisperson heard all four verb typesat once:
41. OKAY, I LIED, 1 AND 2 1. INTRANSITIVE VS. 2. TRANSITIVE Carries action to a receiverThink of the transit station—it carries peopleACTIONDoes not carry an action to a receiver“in” = “not”RECEIVERTransitive Verb
5INTRANSITIVE Simplest type of verb to understand and diagram i.e. Rex barks.Has action but no receiver of the actionRex barks, but he doesn’t “bark something.” Nothing “gets barked.”Can have helping verbs:Rex was barking.Rex has barked, might have been barking.The subject DOES the actionThe action has NO RECEIVER
6SOMETIMES, THE ACTION DESCRIBED ISN’T VERY LIVELY… Rex lay in the kennel. The rat had died in the trap. He existed in a coma. We had been sleeping on the porch.Not very exciting, but still ACTION verbs (with some helping and linking thrown in for fun!)(WHEE! Isn’t this FUN??)
7ALSO, SOMETIMES THERE IS A SORT OF RECEIVER, AT LEAST IN REAL LIFE Rex barks at Joe.Joe receives some sort of action from the barking. He must hear it! But not GRAMMATICALLY!!!“at Joe” is a prepositional phrase telling how or where or possibly why Rex barks. (But you knew that already, didn’t you?Smarties.)
8AS YOU HAVE BEEN DOING,Continue to place the verb with all its helpers on the verb line to the right of the subject. But now check to make sure the subject is doing the action and that there is no receiver of the action. Then label such verbs I for Intransitive. And smile. Cause this is good stuff. Delicious stuff, even!IYou have been learningaboutverbsintransitivethoseeasy
10TRANSITIVE (ACTIVE) VERBS If I say to you “Rex bit,” you do not feel I have made a complete sentence, do you? Yet there is a subject (Rex) and a verb (bit). But the thought is not complete. You wait for me to answer the question ____________?
11SO I SAY… Rex bit Joe. Now the idea is complete. Here we definitely have a verb of ACTION. The subject (Rex) DID the action. The action, as poor Joe will quickly agree, has been RECEIVED. So, we have a TRANSITIVE VERB:T DORex bit Joe
12DIRECT OBJECTS The noun that receives the action of a transitive verb T DORex bit JoeYou will NEVER have a TV without a DO; you will NEVER have a DO without a TVDraw an arrow from the verb to the object that receives the action. Did the subject really DO THIS VERB to the DIRECT OBJECT? Did Joe RECEIVE the biting? Yes, he did. Poor guy. Okay, then, TV and DO!
13Nellie _______________ the dishes in the sink. LET’S PRACTICE: FILL IN THE MISSING ELEMENT AND LABEL ALL TV’S AND DO’S. THEN DIAGRAM THE SENTENCES.Nellie _______________ the dishes in the sink.Have you seen the cat’s ________________?On Friday all the _____________ quit their jobs.I do not believe those ____________.Otto __________food to the squirrels.
14NOW WE KNOW 2 OF THE 4 VERB TYPES! Intransitive VerbsTransitive VerbsYour excitement is burningholes in my retinas.
15Check out the difference between these two verbs: One of the strengths of the English language is that it is flexible. We may bend a single word into many different uses. And so, you should not be surprised to learn that some verbs can be, in different sentences, EITHER transitive or intransitive.Check out the difference between these two verbs:Rex has been running in the woods.Rex ran the cat up the tree.What’s the difference between the two?
16Rex ran the cat up the tree. Rex has been running in the woods.Rex ran the cat up the tree.Rex “ran” SOMETHINGSomething received the action of his running; something “got run”Rex ran cat“has been running” shows the action Rex didDid anything receive the action? No, Rex just did it.“in the woods” is an adverbial preposition showing where he did itRex has been runninginuptreewoodsthethethe
17LOOK UP THE WORD “RUN” IN THE DICTIONARY—GO AHEAD, I’LL WAIT.
18Remember, Rex has been running in the woods. Notice the little letters in italics, usually placed right after the pronunciation guide. See how “run” is followed by “v.i.”? There will be a long definition which may begin: “to move swiftly.” Read on through that definition and you should come to “v.t.” Then another definition follows, perhaps: “to cause to run.”Remember, Rex has been running in the woods.Rex has indeed “been moving swiftly” through the woods.Rex ran the cat up the tree.Rex has “caused” the cat “to run” (transitive).
19Birds sing. Birds sing songs. EXAMINE, DIAGRAM AND LABEL THESE SENTENCES, WHICH GIVE FURTHER EXAMPLES OF VERBS USED BOTH TRANSITIVELY (RECEIVER OF THE ACTION) AND INTRANSITIVELY (NO RECEIVER OF THE ACTION.)Birds sing. Birds sing songs.Bill was fighting. Ali was fighting Joe for the title.Dawn broke over the mountain. Did you break that cup?She swept through the room like a queen. I swept the porch.
20REMEMBER! Don’t confuse a modifier with a receiver. Diagram me! A modifier will answer an adjectival or adverbial questionA receiver answers “What?” or “Whom?” It will be a NOUN!Ms. Kitchens taught grammar.Diagram me!You have now studied verbs with no receiver of the action and verbs with direct objects. Remember them!
22WHAT I LEFT OUT WAS THIS: The INTRANSITIVE verb we studied was called INTRANSITIVE COMPLETE (IC) (it stands all by itself.)The TRANSITIVE VERB we studied was called TRANSITIVE ACTIVE (TA)
23Intransitive Complete (IC) ACTIONTransitive Active (TA)Rex bit JoeSubject does action.Direct Object receives action(TA ALWAYS has DO)Intransitive Complete (IC)Rex barksAction, but no receiverSubject does actionACTION BEINGTransitive Passive (TP)Joe was bittenSubject receives actionIntransitive Linking(IL)Rex is happyNO action. Verb acts as equals mark. Links subject with predicate noun or predicate adjective.atJoebyRex
24SO, NOW LET’S LOOK AT TRANSITIVE PASSIVE—AKA: PASSIVE VOICE (TP) Recite the definition of a transitive verbDoes it say anything about carrying action from a doer to a receiver? No, indeed. It just says that a transitive verb carries action to a receiver. There is a good reason.Sometimes the doer of a received action is not known. Sometimes we want to emphasize the receiver of the action. Sometimes we want to hide the doer.
25When the dictionary says a verb is “v. t When the dictionary says a verb is “v.t.,” it does not know whether the verb will be in the active or passive voice.The dictionary is only telling you that the verb can be transitive, that it can carry action to a receiver.All the transitive verbs you have studied so far have carried action from a SUBJECT (doer of the action) to a DIRECT OBJECT (receiver of the action.)TA DORex bit Joe
26BUT HARK! WHAT ABOUT THIS SENTENCE? Joe was bitten by Rex.This sentence describes the same action as “Rex bit Joe,” doesn’t it? There is action, some nasty biting going on. There is a doer of the action, good old Rex. And poor Joe is still receiving the action. What has happened to the sentence?When in doubt, diagram (you knew I was going to say that, didn’t you?):Joe was bittenbyRex
27Suddenly, the RECEIVER of the action is the SUBJECT Suddenly, the RECEIVER of the action is the SUBJECT!! Think about that carefully. Both verbs we studied before always had the SUBJECT DOING the action. Now the SUBJECT is sitting there being acted on.Joe was bittenbyRex
28CONSIDER THIS SENTENCE: Bob has been hurt!Is there action? Yes, “to hurt” is an action. Is there a receiver of the action? Yes, Bob received the “hurting.” We know, therefore, that “has been hurt” is transitive. Let’s diagram the sentence and see whether the verb is active or passive.Bob has been hurtSince Bob, the receiver of the action is also the subject of the verb, we know “has been hurt” is transitive passive (TP). Now, do we know the doer of the action? No, we don’t know who or what did the “hurting” to Bob. Yet the sentence is complete.
29Bob has been hurt (by the rabid skunk.) If the doer of the action is shown, it will be the object of the preposition “by” in a prepositional phrase modifying the verb and answering the question ________?Bob has been hurt (by the rabid skunk.)
30The next set of sentences have TA verbs The next set of sentences have TA verbs. Rewrite each to make it a TP verb. What will become the subject? If you don’t figure that out right away, refer to the sentence that changed from “Rex bit Joe,” to “Joe was bitten by Rex.” The DO becomes the subject of the TP verb.And yes, good question! While verbs are sometimes without helpers, ALL TP VERBS will have SOME PART OF THE VERB “TO BE.” Other helpers may be used, too: Joe was bitten, had been bitten, must have been bitten, etc.Ex.: Rex chased the cat. (TA)The cat was chased by Rex. (TP)And, don’t worry, some of them will sound strange!
31Turn these TA verbs into TP verbs: Harry lost the ball.The force of the blow had broken the antique safe.Everyone in the room heard the tinkle of breaking glass.All the people had a good time.With the arrival of Harry, we began rehearsal.
32Dorothy was hit on the head by the shutter. Now, try turning TP verbs around to TA. Note: unless the doer of the action is shown in a “by” prepositional phrase, you will have to make up a doer. Example:The window has been broken. (TP)Jay-Z broke the window. (TA)Dorothy was hit on the head by the shutter.Often Melinda has been seen at the opera.In some countries girls are guarded by chaperones.George might have been bitten by a spider.Mother, your favorite lamp has been smashed.
33WEREN’T ALL THOSE TP AND TA VERBS FUN?? We could stall a bit longer…fart around with objective complements and retained objects…hold out on INTRANSITIVE LINKING VERBS…
35Intransitive Complete (IC) A C T I O NTransitive Active (TA)Rex bit JoeSubject does action.Direct Object receives action(TA ALWAYS has DO)Intransitive Complete (IC)Rex barksAction, but no receiverSubject does actionACTIONBEINGTransitive Passive (TP)Joe was bittenSubject receives actionIntransitive Linking(IL)Rex is happyNO action. Verb acts as equals mark. Links subject with predicate noun or predicate adjective.atJoebyRex
36REMEMBER THAT TRUSTY ‘OLE DEFINITION OF A VERB? A verb states action or beingWhich of the verb types that we have studied state action?Being?I’m SO glad you asked!!Remember Linking verbs? All linking verbs are really INTRANSITIVE LINKING VERBSCan you guess why they are intransitive?They don’t carry action to a receiver!And why don’t they?There is NO action!
37THAT WAS THE EASY PARTWhile many of our sentences in life deal with actions, because we are interested in what things do, we also need a sentence pattern for talking about what a thing IS. We have our five senses and we wish to express what those senses perceive about things and people. We want to say that:SOMEBODY IS SOMETHING
38=SOMEBODY IS SOMETHING The INTRANSITIVE LINKING VERB acts as an EQUAL MARK between the somebody or something and the thing or the quality it is. Ms. Kitchens is insane.
39MEMORIZE THESE! Be Become Seem Appear Look Feel Sound Taste Smell RemainGrowStayRat nuggets! I remember when Ms. K demanded that we memorize the forms of the verb “to be.” I should have listened to her!
40Now we are ready to use “be” as a main verb! I know, I know…I may have told you—And for good reason! To be verbs don’t crash or burn or terrify or dance. But what would we do without it? Sound like Tarzan?JANE PRETTY.
41We can also have helpers with IL verbs: With our linking verbs, we can express Jane’s prettiness with many shades of meaning:Jane IS (or was or had been) pretty.Jane BECAME pretty.Jane SMELLS pretty.Jane STAYED pretty.We can also have helpers with IL verbs:Jane MIGHT HAVE BEEN GROWING prettier.
422+2= What would Pierce say if you left that blank? Naturally, if an IL verb is to act as an EQUAL MARK, there has to be something on the other side of the mark.So, just as a TA ALWAYS has a DO (remember??) an IL verb will be completed by a PREDICATE NOUN (PN) OR PREDICATE ADJECTIVE (PA).SUBJECT IL PA OR SUBJECT IL PN
43BEFORE WE FORGET (OR FALL ASLEEP) Since DO’s, PA’s and PN’s complete the verb, they are called COMPLEMENTS, which means “completers.”So, two kinds of verbs take complements …quick…what are they?Wipe that drool from your chin!
44DID YOU NOTICE?That the line between the IL and PA or PN slants? Unlike the vertical line between TA and DO, which is like a fence, the slanted line before the PA or PN POINTS BACK TO THE SUBJECT.TA DO Rex bit Joe Are Rex and Joe the same thing? Does Rex describe Joe? Heavens, NO!Rex is dog Are Rex and dog the same thing? YES! Rex = dog is the message!a
45now that you’ve memorized the linking verbs… You did, didn’t you? How about a mnemonic device to help poor ‘ole Ms. K’s failing memory?Let’s look at those linking verbs more carefully:Not every Intransitive Linking verbs can take a PNThey can ALL take PA’s, however.
46Did you find four??Not every Intransitive Linking verbs can take a PN They can ALL take PA’s, however.Remember how Jane could = pretty? (A PA, with all the IL’s that made sense)Let’s find out which IL’s can take PNs:Make Jane = cheerleaderFill in the blank with all the IL’s that make sense.Remember that you will need to consider the various forms of “to be” for the first one, but no using the infinitive “to be” itself…conjugate it.Jane cheerleader
47Jane CheerleaderDid you notice that the verbs of the five senses wouldn’t work? What our senses that perceive how things look, feel, sound, taste and smell really do is answer the adjective question: “What kind?” So they will connect the subject with a PREDICATE ADJECTIVE (PA) only.
48Soup tasted salty He tasted soup Wouldn’t it be nice to know that any time you saw one of your dozen IL verbs you could pin it down with an IL label? ALAS! You have to make sure that it is really being an EQUALS MARK between a subject and a PA or PN.When one of the verbs on the IL list is used as another type of verb (IC, TA or TP) the meaning of the verb has changed somewhat:IL PA TA DOSoup tasted salty He tasted soupDoes “soup” EQUAL “salty”? Does “he” equal “soup”?Here, taste means to have a certain Does “soup” describe “he”?flavor Here, taste means to test with the tongue!
49Let’s Practice. All the verbs in this one are IL Let’s Practice! All the verbs in this one are IL. You decide whether the complement is PA or PN. Label the verbs and complements and make sure the line between slant toward the subject.She has been looking sick lately.The trees in the Blue Ridge Mountains do look blue.This corn must have been fresher yesterday.That old man has remained our club’s president for years.The actor seemed young at first be grew older during the play.I am becoming sleepier by the minute.