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Period IV Review 1450-1750. Major European Developments  Changes in:  Way people view themselves  Governments and their authority  Religion, politics,

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Presentation on theme: "Period IV Review 1450-1750. Major European Developments  Changes in:  Way people view themselves  Governments and their authority  Religion, politics,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Period IV Review

2 Major European Developments  Changes in:  Way people view themselves  Governments and their authority  Religion, politics, and individuality  Framed European interaction with the world  Success based on competition and rivalry, came at the expense of land-based empires

3 Revolution in European Thought and Expression  Middle Age Ends=Unification under centralized rule  Crusades renew contact b/t Euro and rest of the world  Islamic and Byzantine preservation of Greece and Rome  Rediscovered past+Productive present=4 classical movements  Renaissance  Reformation  Scientific Revolution  Enlightenment

4 The Renaissance: Classical Civilization Part II  Pop. Rise=demand increase  Massive urbanization  Middle class emerges in response to trade (bankers, merchants, etc.)  Extra money was spent on recapturing past

5 Humanism: A Bit More Focus on the Here and Now  Shift from focus on the afterlife (church) to here- and-now (secular)  Celebrating human achievement and focus on the individual  Reduces the authority of institutions

6 Don’t Call it a Comeback! (Actually, Go Ahead)  Renaissance=rebirth of classical Greece and Rome  Artistic techniques developed around realism  Linear perspective  Chiaroscurro  Architecture and sculpture returned to the classical ages  Heading North and West  More religious  Portraiture and everyday life  Italians vs. the rest  Famous northern painters existed, but Italian artists far outnumbered them  North primarily known from literature developments

7 Western Writers Finally Get Readers  Johannes Gutenberg and the Printing Press  More affordable  Printed in vernacular  More literacy/education  The Prince  Machiavelli’s guide for ruling  Christian humanism  Erasmus’s In Praise of Folly  More’s Utopia  William Shakespeare  Showed obsession with classical politics/mythology

8 The Protestant Reformation  Pope had immense power  Church as unifier and endorser (Heaven through the Church)  Indulgences  Sold to pay for Renaissance projects  Reduced time in purgatory  Nobility resented wealth and power of the Church

9 Martin Luther: Monk on a Mission  95 Theses  Challenged the church on indulgences, wealth, etc.  Church services in vernacular  Cut out the middle man for salvation  Ideas spread north (printing press)  Excommunicated

10 Christianity Splits Again  Protestantism  Wave of anti-Catholicism creates new sects of Christianity  New ideas on salvation  Justification by faith  Predestination (Calvinism)  Challenging Rome’s Authority  Henry VIII and the Anglican Church

11 The Counter-Reformation: The Pope Reasserts His Authority  Changes  Indulgence sales banned  Frequent meetings with bishops and parishes  Train priests to live the life they preach  Reaffirmations  Obligatory weekly mass  Supreme authority of the pope was re-established  Council of Trent ( )  Defined interpretation and clarified positions  Latin re-established  Persecution of “heretics”  Ignatius of Loyola  Founded Jesuit order  Self-control and moderation  Prayer AND good works lead to salvation  Many appointed by kings to high palace positions

12 The Scientific Revolution: Prove It or Lose It  Nicolaus Copernicus  Heliocentric Theory  Galileo Galilei  Challenged Ptolemaic model (Church model) of geocentric universe  The Scientific Method  Proving theories through experimentation and analysis (not just reason)  Johannes Kepler  Elliptical Orbits  Sir Isaac Newton  Invented calculus to prove other’s theories  Developed the law of gravity  Questioning of the church and new findings led to a rise in Atheism and Deism.

13 The Enlightenment: Out of Darkness, Into the Light  Focused on the relationship b/t man and government  Divine right was constant despite Reformation divisions  Social Contract challenges the absolute rule of monarchs  Enlightened Monarchs  Absolute rulers who increased tolerance and opportunity for their people through enlightenment ideas  Hobbes  Gov’t preserves peace and stability at all costs  Locke  Natural rights, gov’t secured and protected natural rights  Rousseau  General will of the people sets laws to be followed  Montesquieu  Seperation of Powers  Voltaire  Freedom of speech, press, etc.

14 European Exploration and Expansion: Empires of the Wind  Pre-1400  Exploration limited to land (sea-routes connected through land-routes)  European desires  Eliminate Muslim middlemen  Establish trade routes to Asia  Spurred on by Hanseatic League success  Portugal leads the way with Prince Henry the Navigator  Dias rounds Africa  de Gama explores E. Africa coast and lands in Calicut, India  Spain goes west under Ferdinand and Isabella  Columbus goes west to find China and India, runs into Cuba and the West Indies instead  Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

15 Early Explorers  Vespucci  Identified the Americas as a new continent  Ponce de Leon  Florida for Spain (1513)  Vasco de Balboa (1513)  Central America for Spain, saw Pacific Ocean  Magellan (1519)  Southern tip of S.A., crew circumnavigated  Henry Hudson (1609)  Looked for Northwest Passage, claimed Hudson River valley for the Dutch

16 And Now A Word From Our Sponsors  Technology exchange made it possible  Cartography advances  Sternpost Rudder  Lateen Sails  Astrolabe  Magnetic Compass  Three-Masted Caravels  Competitiveness of Europe meant rapid adoption of old tech

17 The New World: Accidental Empire  I LIKE GOLD!!!!  Wealth of the New World attracted conquest  Cortes and the Aztecs (The enemy of my enemy, blah, blah, blah)  I No Feel So Good   Disease (smallpox) and weaponry rapidly made up for the lack of manpower and the mighty Incas (Pizarro) and Aztecs were quickly conquered

18 Feudalism: American Style Creole s Mestizos and Mulattos African Slaves and Native Americans  Encomienda System  New hierarchies established as Spanish moved in  Viceroys used to govern regions (5)  In return for protection and conversion of natives, penisulares were given land  African slaves brought in to supplement the workforce Peninsulares

19 The African Slave Trade: The Love of Money at the Root of Evil  Slavery was not new, but demand had grown  African rulers were divided, but Europeans were not concerned  Middle Passage (Africa to Americas)  Major Demographic Shifts  Africans had forced migration  Native Americans wiped out  European urban pop. increased

20 The Columbian Exchange: Continental Shift  Transfer of foods, animals, resources, and diseases across the Atlantic  Europe and Africa  Squash, beans, corn, potatoes, and cacao  Americas  Horses, pigs, goats, chili peppers, and sugar cane  Effects in Afroeurasia  Pop. Increases  Urbanization  Enclosure movement  Effects in America  Increase need for slave labor around silver and sugar  Environmental degradation

21 The Commercial Revolution: The New Economy  Joint-Stock Company  Reduces the risks of colonization ventures  Royal Charters  Used by countries to facilitate and monopolize trade (EIC)  Mercantilism  Export more than you import (favorable balance of trade)  Obtain gold and silver bullion  Manipulate trade through tariffs and colonization

22 Oh Yeah…Remember Asia?  Europeans establish sea- trade with Asia  Difficult travel  Protectionist policies  Portuguese first, then Dutch in Indonesia  England and France set up trading posts in India

23 European Rivals: Spain and Portugal  Spain dominated the New World  Portugal dominated coastal Africa, Indian Ocean, and Spice Islands  Lost it’s position as the Dutch and English became more powerful  Charles V (Hapsburg)  Holy Roman Emperor  Controlled from Germany to Spain and colonies in the New World  Got tired of ruling and gave Germany/Austria to Ferdinand I  The rest went to Philip II  Philip II  Devout Catholic  Led the Spanish Inquisition  Missionary work in New World  Controlling the Empire  Dutch Protestants revolted and broke into the Netherlands  Catholic Dutch became Belgium  Spanish Armada was defeated  Mid-17 th c., Spain declines and England and France are rising

24 England  Elizabethan Age ( )  Growth of exploration and colonization  Golden Age of England  Catholic and Protestant fighting  Petition of Right  Limited Charles I ability to tax and imprison  English Civil War (1641)  Roundheads vs. Cavaliers  Cromwell establishes English Commonwealth  Stuart Restoration  Charles II takes the throne  Habeas Corpus Act  Glorious Revolution  Replaces James II with William and Mary  Sign English Bill of Rights  Constitutional Monarchy

25 France  Bourbon Dynasty  Huguenots vs. Catholics leads to Edict of Nantes  Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin  Advisors to the throne  Establish bureaucracy  Louis XIV ( )  “Sun King”  Built Palace of Versailles  Overturned Edict of Nantes  Jean Baptiste Colbert  Managed royal funds  Wanted revenue to increase French empire  War of Spanish Succession ( )  Louis XIV’s grandson obtains Spanish throne  Europe worries about a super- combo (Fr and Sp)  England, HRE, and German princes unite  Philip V gets Spanish throne and Fr/Sp unification is forbidden

26 German Areas (The Holy Roman Empire, Sort of)  HRE  Centralized in Germany and Austria  Pretty weak  Feudalism and city-states  Hapsburg intermarriages  Catholic south vs. Lutheran north  Remember 3 things  HRE lost parts of Hungary to Ottomans  30 Years War was devastating  By 1700’s Northern German States (Prussia) gaining power  1555 Peace of Augsburg  30 Years War (1618)  Bohemian Protestants challenge HRE authority  France, Denmark and Sweden get involved  Left Germany depopulated and devastated (HRE lost 7 million people)  Peace of Westphalia (1648)  German states get independence (Prussia #1)  HRE declines rapidly

27 Russia Out of Isolation  Good Ivan, Bad Ivan  Ivan III stops Russian tribute to Mongols  Ivan III and IV push Cossacks (peasant soldiers) eastward to Siberia and Caspian Sea  Time of Troubles ( )  Competition over throne  Romanovs take over and rule harshly  Expand to Ukraine and north of Manchuria  Peter the Great ( )  Westernized Russian society and military  Moved capital to St. Petersburg  Catherine the Great ( )  Enlightened monarch  Enforced serfdom and limited merchants  Expanded to Poland and Black Sea, access to the Mediterranean

28 Islamic Gupowder Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal  Ottoman Empire  Conquest of Constantinople (1453)  Religiously tolerant initially  Controlled from Greece to Persia, E. Mediterranean across N. Africa  Janissaries to expand empire  Golden Age under Suleiman I  Expanded west to Vienna, but never further  Safavids  Shia Islam  Modern day Iran, sandwiched b/t Ottomans and Mughals  Mughal Empire (Babur)  India, replaced Delhi Sultanate  United India under Akbar through religious toleration  Eliminated jizya and sati, used Hindus in gov’t  Led to a golden age  Post Akbar  Jizya reinstated and Hindus persecuted, long-standing conflict  Europeans begin to dominate trade in the region

29 Africa  Trade creates strong centralized states in S and W Africa  Songhai  Islamic state, traded salt/gold  Centralized around Timbuktu  Kongo  Traded closely w/ Portuguese  Converts to Roman Catholicism  Portuguese slave trade leads to war and decline  Angola  Tried to resist Portugal by allying w/ Dutch but failed

30 Isolated Asia: China  Ming Dynasty ( )  Ousted Mongols, centralized, Confucianism  Zheng He traveled Asia, IO, and E. Africa w/ treasure fleets  Change from paper money to single whip system (silver based), led to exchange w/ Spanish  Leads to massive inflation  Internal problems (famine, peasant revolts) led to Qing takeover (Manchus)  Qing Dynasty ( )  Ethnically elite  Social mobility increased through exam system  Kangxi ( ) and Qianlong ( )  Confucian scholars  Expand empire to N., C., and SE Asia  Controlled trade w/ Europe to protect culture  Merchant class rises

31 Japan  Mid-1500’s  Shoguns rule but feudal lords are weak  Portugal establishes trade (guns) and Christianity takes hold  Tokugawa Shogunate (1600)  Tokugawa Ieyasu consolidates power  Rigid class system (warrior, farmer, artisan, merchant)  Moves capital to Edo  Western Resistance  Christians persecuted  National Seclusion Policy (1635) creates seclusion  Allows for Japanese Renaissance  Buddhism and Shinto  Kabuki theatre  Haiku  Artistry increases

32 Technology and Innovations  Europe’s Rise  Gunpowder, printing press, navigational advances  Asian Stagnation  Japan and China revert to tradition  Muslims don’t take advantage of European advances  Major Changes  Animals, plants, disease, and population migrations  Wars in Europe and abroad (religion and conquest)  Transformed society across the globe

33 Changes and Continuities in Women  A Few Rise  Elizabeth I, Isabella, Nur Jahan  The Song Remains the Same  Property of husbands, inherited less, few legal or political rights  Changes  Global connections led to new races and social structures  Trade changes took female jobs and put them in the hands of men  Forced African migration increased polygamy  Confucian values controlled women as domestic stabilizers  Enlightenment, Reformation, Renaissance changed little for women

34 Why Europe  Endless Exploration  Explored politics, gov’t, culture, religion, territory, technology, science, trade, etc.  Asia focused on itself  Islam didn’t take advantage of changes  Perfect storm of factors for European dominance

35 Why Did Other Cultures Approach the West Differently?  China and Japan were content to keep Europe at bay  African societies were fragmented and unable to resist  Americas were underdeveloped  Middle East was bypassed by Europeans (middlemen)

36 How did the Global Economy Change?  Sailing  Connected the world and diminished land trade  Mercantilism  Established imperialism, connecting politics w/ economics  Private Investment  Put economy in the hands of individuals, lessening government control


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