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Exploration. The Crusades The Vikings Marco Polo How Did Each of the Following Influence European Expansion?

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Presentation on theme: "Exploration. The Crusades The Vikings Marco Polo How Did Each of the Following Influence European Expansion?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploration

2 The Crusades The Vikings Marco Polo How Did Each of the Following Influence European Expansion?

3 VikingsVikings


5 “To serve God and His Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness, and to grow rich as all men desire to do.” Bartholomew Diaz What Motivated Europeans To Venture Outward?

6 Exploration 3 main reasons for exploration: God, Glory, and Gold

7 Technology

8 The Astrolabe

9 The Caravel Its triangular sails allowed it to sail against the wind

10 Exploration The leading country in this sailing technology is Portugal

11 Exploration Prince Henry of Portugal influenced exploration by opening a navigational school

12 Portugal’s Routes

13 Exploration 1 st Explorer is Bartolomeu Diaz who sailed to the tip of Africa

14 Exploration The 1 st European to go to India was Vasco da Gama for Portugal


16 Exploration Spain was the next country to explore

17 Christopher Columbus

18 Exploration In 1492, Christopher Columbus an Italian tried to sail west to get to the east and landed on an island in the Caribbean Sea

19 Exploration Pedro Cabral of Portugal also went west and landed in Brazil He claimed it for Portugal and Spain got mad

20 Exploration Spain and Portugal fought over the new land To decrease the conflict they signed the Treaty of Tordesillas dividing the world for Spanish and Portugal exploration


22 Spain Amerigo Vespucci was the first explorer to know that the Americas was a new world = new land was named after him

23 Spain Hernando Cortes led an expedition of conquistadors to Mexico where he heard of a great Aztec empire ruled by Montezuma II Cortes conquered the Aztecs by using guns, native enemies of the Aztecs, and disease

24 Hernando Cortes Montezuma II


26 Spain Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incan Empire in South America by kidnapping and then killing the king

27 PizarroPizarro

28 Coronado



31 Spain Spanish priests came to the new world to spread faith and criticize the treatment of Native Americans Bartolome de Las Casas sent letters to the Spanish King trying to help the Native Americans

32 Spain Spain would create an encomienda system where natives worked for Spanish lords in the new world = cheap labor force No women = Spanish married natives = Mestizo

33 Spain However, disease like smallpox was killing the natives = Shortage of labor = Spain was the 1 st country to import slaves to work the encomiendas



36 Spain Philip II was king of Spain who believed in divine right (god granted kings absolute rule) He used the gold of the new world to for 2 things –Defend Roman Catholicism –Stimulate the arts

37 Spain

38 Miguel de Cervantes wrote Don Quixote

39 Spain Problems Dutch Revolt So much gold and silver led to inflation Pirates led to heavy taxes

40 Netherlands The Dutch founded New Netherland and founded a city called New Amsterdam = New York

41 Netherlands Famous for painters like Rembrandt and Jan Vermeer

42 France France explored New France benefiting from the fur trade

43 England The English established Jamestown in 1607

44 England Pilgrims and the Puritans followed Jamestown They left England because of religious persecution

45 England France and England would fight for North America in the French and Indian War Britain would win and take all the French colonies in North America

46 Trade Triangular Trade was developed

47 Trade The voyage that brought the slaves from Africa to America is called the Middle Passage

48 A Slave Ship

49 Another View Human Cargo

50 Trade Columbian Exchange was the cultural diffusion of plants, animals, and diseases across the Atlantic Ocean

51 Trade The colonies started a new wave of business practices = Commercial Revolution A part of the Commercial Revolution was the rise of capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership and investment of wealth for profit

52 Trade Commercial Revolution brought the theory of mercantilism Mercantilism is when a nation’s power is depends on how wealthy it is To be wealthy states had to sell more goods than they buy = favorable balance of trade

53 Trade To pay for these new colonies, joint-stock companies were created Joint-stock companies are when people combine their wealth for a common purpose Common purpose = fund the colonies Ex: East India Company

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