9Constraints on QuinnMust give everybody a chance to apply for the job (can’t just hire your friend) (People demand)Can only pay what Tiffany will allow (Appropriated funds)Must have a public meeting so everybody knows the hiring practices are fair (Courts rule)Can only hire people who are not prejudice toward cats (Tiff likes cats) (Congress)Must walk at least ½ mile but not more than ¾ mile (Executive order)Must provide for feet when below zero
17Reid’s constraints He is allotted $50 per month for food He has to check all stores for the best buy before he can purchase any dog food.He must purchase dog food that meets a minimum standard of nutrition
19Chase’s Constraints Must bag all poop Can hire someone to clean up poop but same hiring practices are required.Must clean up poop left in the street if poop occurs on the walk. (Public demands)Must provide for dog to poop where it won’t harm the grass (Environmental impact)Can only pay $50 per month for poop removalMust clean up poop every Wednesday and Sunday
23BureaucracyA large, complex organization composed of appointed officials.FBI, IRS, Department of Education , State Department, Department of Health and Human Services,The list goes on, and on, and on, and on.Federal agencies
24As new departments are created so are new bureaucracies. After the Civil War the Pension Office was started. People needed to be hired.Department of Agriculture was created in 1862
25American BureaucracyPolitical authority over the Bureaucracy is shared among several institutions.Both President and Congress has Constitutional powers over the BureaucracyMost federal agencies share functions with related agencies at the state and local level.Today’s bureaucracy is largely the product of two events, the Great Depression (New Deal) and World War IIAbout 2 Million peopleAnother 13 million indirectly working (hired contractors, state agencies, etc.
26Power of Bureaucracy Discretionary Authority The ability the choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out by law.The more discretionary authority, the more powerful the bureaucracy.Congress has delegated authority to regulatory agencies in three areas.Paying subsidies (farmers, veterans, etc)Transferring Money from federal govt. to state govt. (Grant in aide program)Devising and enforcing regulations (Safety features for cars (Highway Safety Admin.) drugs that will be allowed to be sold (Food and Drug Administration), etc.
27ConstraintsCan’t hire, fire, build or sell without going through procedures set down in law.How much money it pays its members is established by law, not the market.
28Administrative Procedure Act Before adopting a new rule or policy, an agency must give notice, solicit comments and often times hold hearings.Freedom of Information ActCitizens have the right to inspect all government records.National Environmental Policy ActBefore undertaking any major action affecting the environment the agency must issue an environmental impact statement
29Privacy Act Open Meeting Law Government files about individuals, such as tax records, must be kept secret.Open Meeting LawEvery part of every agency meeting must be open to the public unless certain matters (military, trade secrets) are being discussed.
30Another constraint is that Congress often times gives the job to multiple agencies. Stopping drugs trafficking is the task of the Custom’s service, the FBI, the Drug Enforcement Admin., the Boarder Patrol, and the Defense Department.
31Effect of these constraints Government acts slowlySometimes the government acts inconsistentlyIt is easier to block action that to take actionLower ranking employees will be reluctant to make decisions on their own.Citizens will complain of “red tape”Bureaucratic delay or confusion
32Why so many constraints? Every bit of red tape is put in place by Congress, the White House, the courts, or the agency itself.Environmental groups want to protect the environment so laws are passed.The agencies then must follow those laws (impact statement)People want a “fair chance” to get a government contract so laws are passed that only allow contracts to be issued after procedures are followed.
33Iron TriangleRelationship between an agency, committee and an interest groupExample: Department of Agriculture works closely with farm organizations and Congressional agriculture committeesNot as prominent as in the past.
34Congressional oversight No agency can exist without congressional approval.No money can be spent unless it has been authorized by congress.Even money that has been authorized must be appropriated (money set aside for a specific use)Billie working for National Parks Service
35Sometimes individual members of Congress may call an agency head on behalf of a constituent. Congressional Investigation
36Five major problems with a Bureaucracy Red TapeComplex rules and procedures that must be followed in order to get something done.ConflictSome agencies seem to be working at cross purposed with other agenciesDuplicationOccurs when different federal agencies seem to be doing the same thingCustoms Services and Drug Enforcement
37ImperialismThe tendency of agencies to grow without regard to the benefits that their programs confer or costs that they entailWasteSpending more than is necessary to buy some product or service.