Presentation on theme: "THE BUREAUCRACY The Rule Making Institutions Which carry out the laws."— Presentation transcript:
THE BUREAUCRACY The Rule Making Institutions Which carry out the laws
What is a bureaucracy? A set of complex hierarchical departments, agencies, commissions, and their staffs that exist to help the president carry out the mandated charge to enforce the laws of the nation.
Is the bureaucracy too big? n Common complaint by many Americans now is that government is too big n This idea is reinforced by many politicians that try to run against Washington, D.C. n Many see the bureaucracy as just another name for “red tape” n Bureaucracy was not always so large
Development of Bureaucracy n Washington’s bureaucracy had three depts. (State, War, Treasury) n Increased demands led to increases in size n Spoils System to Merit System –Creation of the civil service system n Regulating the economy –Creation of IRCs n New Deal n World War II and later
Reasons for Growth n Science and Technology –our society is more complex n Business Regulation –gov’t intervention into the market came to be accepted as necessary –protects markets, protects consumers, workers, etc. –more problems have led to more gov’t
Reasons for Growth (con’t) n Social Welfare –attitudes about the role of gov’t has changed here as well. –belief that gov’t should provide support to certain individuals n Belief in Progress –Need gov’t to undertake large projects (e.g., space race, War on Poverty, etc.) n Ambitious Administrators
Government Organization n Cabinet Departments –Biggest units (15) of executive branch covering broad areas of responsibility (e.g, DOD, Interior) n Government Corporations n Independent Agencies –Not part of any cabinet agency, stand alone (e.g., CIA, NASA, EPA) n Regulatory Commissions –outside the direct control of the White House (FCC, FTC) –Typically deal w/ aspects of economy
Civil Service n National bureaucracy has about 2.3 million employees (civilian and defense) n Small number of these are located in D.C. (11%) n Size of federal bur. has been stable and shrinking slightly. Increases in state/local
Civil Servants: Who are they?/Problems n Most positions are merit based n Some are not –Appointed positions –Low-level patronage n Well-trained individuals; high level of education n Somewhat diverse but issues at higher levels Problems: - Political Appointees average less than 2 years - Political Appointees average less than 2 years - Career civil servants may stymie legislation if they - Career civil servants may stymie legislation if they disagree with the president disagree with the president - difficult to find impetus to change - difficult to find impetus to change - very difficult to fire career civil servants: - very difficult to fire career civil servants: - Pride/Reform? - Pride/Reform?
Hatch Act and Beyond n Hatch Act n Hatch Act of 1939 –law enacted to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns –Was this a violation of First Amendment freedoms? n Federal Employees Political Activities Act (1993) –Liberalization of Hatch –can now run for nonpartisan office; make contributions
Bureaucratic Policymaking Policymaking Policymaking Bureaucratic Policymaking Policymaking Policymaking n Major function of agencies is rulemaking rulemaking n Congress delegates power –Congress creates agencies that establish an agency mandate creates agencies creates agencies –This mandate gives the agency authority to make certain policy decisions n Implementation Implementation –process by which a law or policy is put into operation n Iron Triangles and Issue Networks Iron Triangles Iron Triangles –Interest Groups Interest GroupsInterest Groups –Congressional Subcommittees –Bureaucratic agencies
Bureaucratic Accountability n Accountability is the ability to hold officials responsible for their actions n Who should bureaucrats be responsible to? n Bureaucratic officials are not elected by the public n Can be held accountable by the president, Congress and the Courts
Presidential Control n Do presidents have sufficient control? n President appoints over 3000 people n Reorganization n Executive Orders n Presidents have also centralized power –All major regulations now go through OMB for review n Agencies are not totally responsive ProblemsProblems: Problems - Political Appointees average less than 2 years - Political Appointees average less than 2 years - Career civil servants may stymie legislation if they - Career civil servants may stymie legislation if they disagree with the president disagree with the president - difficult to find impetus to change - difficult to find impetus to change - very difficult to fire career civil servants: - very difficult to fire career civil servants: - Pride/Reform? - Pride/Reform?
Congressional Control n Create or abolish agencies or functions n Confirm appointees n Hearings/investigations n Budget controls n New Laws n Legislative veto