Presentation on theme: "The Bureaucracy…. Congress creates agencies Influences agency behavior by statutes it enacts Congress authorizes funds for programs Allows program."— Presentation transcript:
Congress creates agencies Influences agency behavior by statutes it enacts Congress authorizes funds for programs Allows program to exist Done by legislative committee Congress appropriates money Always done by House Appropriations Com. Funds can’t be spent until appropriated, usually for less than authorized
Appropriations Committee may be the most powerful Most expenditure recommendations are approved by House Tends to recommend an amount lower than the agency requested Has power to influence an agency’s policies by “marking up” an agency’s budget But becoming less powerful ▪ Trust funds operate outside the regular government budget and are not controlled by the appropriations committees ▪ (Social Security being the largest) ▪ Annual authorizations allow the legislative committees greater oversight (they can set limits on authorizations before Appropriations com. sets appropriations) ▪ Budget deficits have necessitated cuts
Informal Congressional controls over agencies Individual members of Congress can seek privileges for constituents Congressional committees may seek committee clearance, the right to review/approve certain agency decisions w/o passing a law
Definition: authority of Congress to block a presidential action (Congress vetoes executive order) Declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court in Chadha (1983) ▪ Congress can’t take action that has force of law w/o executive consent However, Congress still passes laws that contain legislative vetoes. They will stand until challenged in court
Power inferred from the congressional power to legislate (SC upholds, but not if personal) Means for checking agency discretion and also for authorizing agency actions independent of presidential preferences
Red tape: keeps large organizations operating smoothly, also satisfies legal/political requirements Conflict and Duplication: Congress sets up agencies to achieve a number of goals which end up overlapping Imperialism- goals are vague and difficult to measure…hard to tell when they’ve reached it (so they just keep going) Waste: no incentive for agency to cut waste ▪ Use it or lose it! ▪ Must buy American, hire unions etc.
Numerous attempts to make the bureaucracy work better for less money Prior reforms stressed increasing centralized control on behalf of efficiency, accountability, and consistency National Performance Review (NPR) in 1993 designed to reinvent government calling for a new kind of organizational culture ▪ Less centralized management ▪ More employee initiatives ▪ Fewer detailed rules, more customer satisfaction
Most rules/red tape are due to struggles between president and Congress Periods of divided government worsen matters, especially in implementing policy Presidents of one party seek to increase political control (executive micromanagement) Congresses of another party respond by increasing investigations and rules (legislative micromanagement)
Government in the Sunshine Act (1976) Required for 1 st time all multi-headed federal agencies hold their meetings regularly in public session Freedom of Information Act (1966) Required federal govt agencies, with some exceptions, to disclose to individuals at their request any information about them contained in govt files. Many curbs on the public’s access to information since 9/11 Thousands of documents removed from internet sites, libraries, etc, in the name of national security. All states also have similar laws!