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The Federal Bureaucracy and Policy Making. Overriding Questions… How has the bureaucracy become the fourth branch of policymaking? How has the bureaucracy.

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Presentation on theme: "The Federal Bureaucracy and Policy Making. Overriding Questions… How has the bureaucracy become the fourth branch of policymaking? How has the bureaucracy."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Federal Bureaucracy and Policy Making

2 Overriding Questions… How has the bureaucracy become the fourth branch of policymaking? How has the bureaucracy become the fourth branch of policymaking? How has the role of the bureaucracy changed over time? How has the role of the bureaucracy changed over time? How does the President influence the bureaucracy? How does the President influence the bureaucracy? How does creating policy differ from implementing policy? How does creating policy differ from implementing policy?

3 Characteristics of the Bureauc… Authority is shared with President, Congress and Judicial Branch Authority is shared with President, Congress and Judicial Branch Pres.-appoints head of bureauc, and has removal power Pres.-appoints head of bureauc, and has removal power Congress-appropriates $ and shapes guiding laws, investigates Congress-appropriates $ and shapes guiding laws, investigates Judicial-authorized the enlargement of the bureauc. Judicial-authorized the enlargement of the bureauc.

4 The Name Game The name department is reserved for agencies of the Cabinet rank. Outside of department, there is little standardization of names throughout the agencies. Common titles include agency, administration, commission, corporation, and authority.

5 Federalism and the Bureauc. Allows agencies to share their function with state and local govts Allows agencies to share their function with state and local govts Department of Ed. Department of Ed. Housing and Urban Development Housing and Urban Development

6 Appointments Appointee has capacity to interpret laws, strengthen political parties Appointee has capacity to interpret laws, strengthen political parties Ideology, character and party affiliation matter Ideology, character and party affiliation matter Patronage to merit system Patronage to merit system

7 Evolution of Bureaucracy- service to regulation new service agencies, Department of Ag. And Dept of Labor new service agencies, Department of Ag. And Dept of Labor Growth of regulatory agencies (Depression and WWII) Growth of regulatory agencies (Depression and WWII)

8 The Impact of 9/11 9/11 attacks could also affect the bureaucracy as profoundly as WWII and the Depression 9/11 attacks could also affect the bureaucracy as profoundly as WWII and the Depression A new cabinet agency (Department of Homeland Security) was created A new cabinet agency (Department of Homeland Security) was created Intelligence-gathering activities were consolidated under a National Intelligence Director Intelligence-gathering activities were consolidated under a National Intelligence Director

9 Merit vs. Patronage Apply after they pass a test given by OPM (Office of Personnel and Management) Apply after they pass a test given by OPM (Office of Personnel and Management)

10 Constraints of the Bureaucracy Statutes or laws Statutes or laws Admin Procedure Act (1946)-hearing has to be held before new rule or policy Admin Procedure Act (1946)-hearing has to be held before new rule or policy Freedom of Info Act-(1966)-documents open to the public Freedom of Info Act-(1966)-documents open to the public National Environmental Policy-(1966) issue impact statement before new standards National Environmental Policy-(1966) issue impact statement before new standards Privacy Act (1974)-govt files on individuals must be confidential Privacy Act (1974)-govt files on individuals must be confidential Congress disperses single duties among various agencies Congress disperses single duties among various agencies

11 Pathologies… Govt acts slowly Govt acts slowly Inconsistency due to conflicting constraints (privacy vs. freedom of info.) Inconsistency due to conflicting constraints (privacy vs. freedom of info.) Easier to block than approve actions Easier to block than approve actions Red tape-more constraints, more forms, more time Red tape-more constraints, more forms, more time Duplication Duplication Waste as the agencies expand Waste as the agencies expand Imperialism: tendency of agencies to grow, irrespective of programs benefits and costs Imperialism: tendency of agencies to grow, irrespective of programs benefits and costs

12 Iron Triangles vs. Issue Networks Relationship between an agency, congressional committee, and an interest group Relationship between an agency, congressional committee, and an interest group Veterans Affairs-House & Senate Committee on veterans affairs-veterans interest group (American Legion) Veterans Affairs-House & Senate Committee on veterans affairs-veterans interest group (American Legion)

13 Movement to Issue Networks Decreased in time (subcommittees, growth of interest groups) Decreased in time (subcommittees, growth of interest groups) Rise of Issue Networks-consist of Washington based IGs, congressional staff, media Rise of Issue Networks-consist of Washington based IGs, congressional staff, media More complex than triangle More complex than triangle

14 Congressional Oversight Approve all new agencies Approve all new agencies Appropriations Appropriations

15 Reforming the Bureaucracy National Performance Review (NPR) in 1993 designed to reinvent government calling for less centralized management, more employee initiatives, fewer detailed rules, and more customer satisfaction National Performance Review (NPR) in 1993 designed to reinvent government calling for less centralized management, more employee initiatives, fewer detailed rules, and more customer satisfaction

16 Setting the Agenda The political agenda: deciding what to make policy about The political agenda: deciding what to make policy about The current political agenda includes taxes, energy, welfare, and civil rights The current political agenda includes taxes, energy, welfare, and civil rights Shared beliefs determine what is legitimate for the government to do Shared beliefs determine what is legitimate for the government to do

17 Majoritarian Politics Example: Antitrust legislation in 1890s was vague with no specific enforcement agency Example: Antitrust legislation in 1890s was vague with no specific enforcement agency During the reform era, politicians and business leaders committed to a strong antitrust policy During the reform era, politicians and business leaders committed to a strong antitrust policy Enforcement was determined primarily by the ideology and personal convictions of the current presidential administration Enforcement was determined primarily by the ideology and personal convictions of the current presidential administration

18 Interest Group Politics Organized interest groups are powerful when regulatory policies confer benefits on one organized group and costs on another equally organized group Organized interest groups are powerful when regulatory policies confer benefits on one organized group and costs on another equally organized group Example: In 1935 labor unions sought government protection for their rights; business firms were in opposition Example: In 1935 labor unions sought government protection for their rights; business firms were in opposition

19 Client Politics Agency capture is likely when benefits are focused and costs are dispersedan agency is created to serve a groups needs Agency capture is likely when benefits are focused and costs are dispersedan agency is created to serve a groups needs Example: National regulation of milk industry, sugar production, merchant shipping Example: National regulation of milk industry, sugar production, merchant shipping The struggle to sustain benefits depends on insider politics The struggle to sustain benefits depends on insider politics

20 Entrepreneurial Politics Relies on entrepreneurs to galvanize public opinion and mobilize congressional support Relies on entrepreneurs to galvanize public opinion and mobilize congressional support Example: In the 1960s and 1970s a large number of consumer and environmental protection statutes passed (e.g., Clean Air Act, Toxic Substance Control Act) Example: In the 1960s and 1970s a large number of consumer and environmental protection statutes passed (e.g., Clean Air Act, Toxic Substance Control Act)

21 A Way of Classifying and Explaining the Politics of Different Policy Issues

22 Kinds of Politics Majoritarian politics: distributed benefits, distributed costs Majoritarian politics: distributed benefits, distributed costs Interest group politics: concentrated benefits, concentrated costs Interest group politics: concentrated benefits, concentrated costs Client politics: concentrated benefits, distributed costs Client politics: concentrated benefits, distributed costs Entrepreneurial politics: distributed benefits, concentrated costs Entrepreneurial politics: distributed benefits, concentrated costs


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