Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 The e- is found inside a blurry “electron cloud”  An area where there is a chance of finding an electron.  Only found with 90% accuracy in the area.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: " The e- is found inside a blurry “electron cloud”  An area where there is a chance of finding an electron.  Only found with 90% accuracy in the area."— Presentation transcript:

1

2  The e- is found inside a blurry “electron cloud”  An area where there is a chance of finding an electron.  Only found with 90% accuracy in the area

3  Each element has its own e- configuration for its ground state  No charges  We base them on where the LAST e- is placed

4  State – city – street – house #  State is called the Principle Energy level  City is called the sublevel  Street is called the orbital  House # is the e- spin direction

5  We have 1-7  Highest occupied ground state energy level = PT period #  Main energy levels Bohr found

6  Each energy level has increasing number of sublevels  Level 1 has 1 sublevel  Level 2 has 2 sublevels  Level 3 has 3 sublevels  And so on….  Though 7 major levels…only 4 main sublevels are needed to describe existing atoms

7  Sublevels are distinguished by the shape of orbitals in them  There are currently four of them ss pp dd ff

8  In each sublevel there are specific orbitals  An Orbital is a 3-D region in space an e- can be found  Does not have “hard and fast” boundaries  See next slide  Each orbital can hold only 2 e-  Mathematically found through wave function

9

10  1 orbital in this sublevel  Sphere shape  Total 2 e- possible  Same shape in each level…just bigger  Found in ALL energy levels

11

12  3 orbitals in this sublevel  Dumbbell shaped  Total 6 e-  Found in Energy Level 2 or Higher  Node between each half of each orbital  Intermediate area between high probability areas

13

14

15  5 orbitals in this sublevel  Clover shape  Total 10 possible e-  Found in Energy Level 3 or higher.

16

17

18  7 orbitals in this sublevel  Total 14 e- possible  Complex shape  Found in Energy Level 4 or higher

19

20

21

22 Sublevels 1s 2s, p 3s, p, d 4s, p, d, f 5s, p, d, f, g 6s, p, d, f, g, h 7s, p, d, f, g, h, i We will only commonly use s, p, d, and f!!

23  State – city – street – house #  State is called the principle E level  City is called the sublevel  Street is called the orbital  House # is the e- spin direction

24 p d f 1 s e - 2 e - 18 e - 32 e - nucleus

25 Increasing energy 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 3d 4d 5d 7p 6d 4f 5f

26 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 3d 4d 5d 7p 6d 4f 5f 1 s 2 = 1s

27  The way electrons are arranged in atoms.  Aufbau principle- electrons enter the lowest energy first.  Must fully fill before move to next  This causes difficulties because of the overlap of orbitals of different energies.

28  Pauli Exclusion Principle- no 2 e- can have same set of 4 quantum #  at most 2 electrons per orbital - different spins!!  Hund’s Rule- “up, up, up before down, down, down”  All orbitals need to be filled w/one “up” spin (positive--clockwise) before any in the sublevel is filled with a “down” spin (negative-- counterclockwise)

29

30  A box is used to represent each orbital.  Arrows are used to represent each electron. **remember opposite spins. Example: the orbital notation for carbon is: 2s1s2p

31  Lets try a few:  Orbital Notation for O  O = 8 e-  Orbital Notation for Cl  Cl = 17e- 1s2s 2p 1s 2s 2p 3s3p

32 Electron Configuration 1 s 2 # of electrons Principle Energy Level sublevel

33 3 Interpret the following Electron Configuration p 4 4 electrons 3 rd Energy Level p sublevel

34  Use the total number of e-  Slowly place e- in order till run out of e-  Example  B 5e-  First 2 in 1s 2 …3 left over  Next 2 can go is 2s 2 …1 left over  Last one goes in 2p, but since only 1 left it is 2p 1  Final configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1

35  K  Cl  Fe  Pb

36 KK  1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1  Cl  1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5  Fe  1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6  Pb  1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 5d 10 6p 2

37  Write out the e- configuration for elements Hydrogen through and including Yttrium

38  Box all things written with the HIGHEST PRINCIPLE energy level for each configuration of your homework  Ex: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3  Circle the LAST THING WRITTEN for each configuration of your homework  Ex: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6

39  Everything is the outside/highest PRINCPLE ENERGY LEVEL  Max is 8 e- total  1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3

40  Ga  Ra  Mn  Se  Am  Br

41  Ga- 4s 2 4p 1  Ra- 7s 2  Mn- 4s 2  Se- 4s 2 4p 4  Am- 7s 2  Br- 4s 2 4p 5

42  The last thing written for the e- configuration  1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6  Every element has its own ground level subshell configuration unique to itself

43 FF  Ca  Al  Pa  Mo  Xe

44  F- 2p 5  Ca- 4s 2  Al- 3p 1  Pa- 5f 3  Mo- 4d 4  Xe- 5p 6

45  In order to save time and your hand when writing out electron configurations, one may use the Noble Gas Notation.  A noble gas symbol is used in place of a long list of electron configurations.  Example: Ar: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 = [Ar]  Noble Gas Shorthand Configuration for Ca  Ca: [Ar] 4s 2

46  Sr  W  Hg  Cl

47  Can do e- configurations for ions, but must make sure to note that that is what you are doing!  Same way, just use the number of e- in the ion involved

48


Download ppt " The e- is found inside a blurry “electron cloud”  An area where there is a chance of finding an electron.  Only found with 90% accuracy in the area."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google