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Published byWalter Fielden Modified over 2 years ago

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The e- is found inside a blurry “electron cloud” An area where there is a chance of finding an electron. Only found with 90% accuracy in the area

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Each element has its own e- configuration for its ground state No charges We base them on where the LAST e- is placed

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State – city – street – house # State is called the Principle Energy level City is called the sublevel Street is called the orbital House # is the e- spin direction

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We have 1-7 Highest occupied ground state energy level = PT period # Main energy levels Bohr found

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Each energy level has increasing number of sublevels Level 1 has 1 sublevel Level 2 has 2 sublevels Level 3 has 3 sublevels And so on…. Though 7 major levels…only 4 main sublevels are needed to describe existing atoms

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Sublevels are distinguished by the shape of orbitals in them There are currently four of them ss pp dd ff

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In each sublevel there are specific orbitals An Orbital is a 3-D region in space an e- can be found Does not have “hard and fast” boundaries See next slide Each orbital can hold only 2 e- Mathematically found through wave function

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1 orbital in this sublevel Sphere shape Total 2 e- possible Same shape in each level…just bigger Found in ALL energy levels

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3 orbitals in this sublevel Dumbbell shaped Total 6 e- Found in Energy Level 2 or Higher Node between each half of each orbital Intermediate area between high probability areas

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5 orbitals in this sublevel Clover shape Total 10 possible e- Found in Energy Level 3 or higher.

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7 orbitals in this sublevel Total 14 e- possible Complex shape Found in Energy Level 4 or higher

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Sublevels 1s 2s, p 3s, p, d 4s, p, d, f 5s, p, d, f, g 6s, p, d, f, g, h 7s, p, d, f, g, h, i We will only commonly use s, p, d, and f!!

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State – city – street – house # State is called the principle E level City is called the sublevel Street is called the orbital House # is the e- spin direction

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p d f 1 s 4 2 3 5 8 e - 2 e - 18 e - 32 e - nucleus

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Increasing energy 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 3d 4d 5d 7p 6d 4f 5f

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1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 3d 4d 5d 7p 6d 4f 5f 1 s 2 = 1s

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The way electrons are arranged in atoms. Aufbau principle- electrons enter the lowest energy first. Must fully fill before move to next This causes difficulties because of the overlap of orbitals of different energies.

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Pauli Exclusion Principle- no 2 e- can have same set of 4 quantum # at most 2 electrons per orbital - different spins!! Hund’s Rule- “up, up, up before down, down, down” All orbitals need to be filled w/one “up” spin (positive--clockwise) before any in the sublevel is filled with a “down” spin (negative-- counterclockwise)

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A box is used to represent each orbital. Arrows are used to represent each electron. **remember opposite spins. Example: the orbital notation for carbon is: 2s1s2p

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Lets try a few: Orbital Notation for O O = 8 e- Orbital Notation for Cl Cl = 17e- 1s2s 2p 1s 2s 2p 3s3p

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Electron Configuration 1 s 2 # of electrons Principle Energy Level sublevel

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3 Interpret the following Electron Configuration p 4 4 electrons 3 rd Energy Level p sublevel

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Use the total number of e- Slowly place e- in order till run out of e- Example B 5e- First 2 in 1s 2 …3 left over Next 2 can go is 2s 2 …1 left over Last one goes in 2p, but since only 1 left it is 2p 1 Final configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1

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K Cl Fe Pb

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KK 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 Cl 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 Fe 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6 Pb 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 5d 10 6p 2

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Write out the e- configuration for elements Hydrogen through and including Yttrium

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Box all things written with the HIGHEST PRINCIPLE energy level for each configuration of your homework Ex: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3 Circle the LAST THING WRITTEN for each configuration of your homework Ex: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6

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Everything is the outside/highest PRINCPLE ENERGY LEVEL Max is 8 e- total 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3

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Ga Ra Mn Se Am Br

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Ga- 4s 2 4p 1 Ra- 7s 2 Mn- 4s 2 Se- 4s 2 4p 4 Am- 7s 2 Br- 4s 2 4p 5

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The last thing written for the e- configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6 Every element has its own ground level subshell configuration unique to itself

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FF Ca Al Pa Mo Xe

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F- 2p 5 Ca- 4s 2 Al- 3p 1 Pa- 5f 3 Mo- 4d 4 Xe- 5p 6

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In order to save time and your hand when writing out electron configurations, one may use the Noble Gas Notation. A noble gas symbol is used in place of a long list of electron configurations. Example: Ar: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 = [Ar] Noble Gas Shorthand Configuration for Ca Ca: [Ar] 4s 2

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Sr W Hg Cl

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Can do e- configurations for ions, but must make sure to note that that is what you are doing! Same way, just use the number of e- in the ion involved

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