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**Day 2 Quantum Numbers and Electron Configurations**

Bono "The less you know, the more you believe." Chapter 13 Day 2 Quantum Numbers and Electron Configurations

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Models of the Atom Dalton Thomson Rutherford Bohr

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**Neils Bohr model of the Atom: **

Electrons can be in 1 of many “principle energy levels”, but cannot be in between any of these energy levels. Each Principle Energy Level (n) is given a number n=1 n=2 n=3 Electrons move around the nucleus like planets move around the sun.

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Unfortunately, Bohr’s model of the Hydrogen atom turned out to be incorrect, so a new model was introduced. But, This! Not This!

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**What are the Quantum Numbers?**

Remember – they give the approximate location of electrons in an atom. They are actually represented by letters. N – distance (size of orbital) l – Shape of orbital m – orientation in space of orbital s – spin of the electron

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Erwin Schrödinger, using complex mathematics, calculated the probability of where an electron is located. The probability of an electron in the first principle energy level: An orbital is drawn that encloses the region where the electron is found 90% of the time.

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**First Energy Level (n=1) can contain 1 sublevel orbital**

Second Energy Level (n=2) can contain 2 sublevel orbitals Third Energy Level (n=3) can contain 3 sublevel orbitals and so on… There are many types of sublevels:

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Shape Name Maximum # of electrons Lowest Energy s 2 Spherical p 6 Highest Energy Dumbell Dumbell

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Maximum # of electrons Name Shape Lowest Energy d 10 f Highest Energy 14 f

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**The next sublevel is g. How many electrons would it hold?**

What type of sublevel orbital(s) would be found in the first principle energy level (n=1)? How many electrons will it hold? What type of sublevel orbital(s) would be found in the second principle energy level (n=2)? How many electrons will it hold? What type of sublevel orbital(s) would be found in the third principle energy level (n=3)? How many electrons will it hold?

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1s vs 2s vs 3s orbitals

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**Called the Pauli exclusion principle**

Each sublevel orbital can hold 2 electrons, which have opposite magnetic fields. Therefore, we say that each electron has a spin, which is opposite of each other. This is symbolized by: Called the Pauli exclusion principle

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**Electron Configurations**

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**Electron Configurations**

Using quantum numbers to give the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus. There are three rules that must be followed!

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**Rule #1 AUFBAU principle Electrons fill low energy orbitals first**

s,p,d then f Filling order 1s2s2p3s3p4s3d4p5s4d5p6s4f5d6p7s5f6d7p

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**Rule #2 Pauli Exclusion Principle**

Since there are two possible spins for an electron, no more than two electrons may fill an orbital. Remember: s = 1 orbital, p = 3 orbitals, d = 5 orbitals and f = 7 orbitals

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Rule # 3 Hund’s Rule When multiple shapes are present, electrons fill orbitals with parallel spins before pairing up. Must follow rule #2! Example 2p

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**Write the following electron configurations**

Li Na Be C Si

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**Using the Periodic Table**

Read from left to right and top to bottom. Stop when you: Reach the end of a row Change color Reach the element of interest Try the following Mg, B, Ne and Cl

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Short-Cut Skip back to the previous Noble Gas (core electrons) and start with the element after that. Try: I, U, Fe

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Quantum Mechanics. Electron Density Gives the probability that an electron will be found in a particular region of an atom Regions of high electron density.

Quantum Mechanics. Electron Density Gives the probability that an electron will be found in a particular region of an atom Regions of high electron density.

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