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1s2s 2p3s 3p 3d n = 1 n = 2 n = 3

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NUCLEUS 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p4d 4f Energy Level SublevelsTotal Orbitals 1s1s1s 2s,p1s+3p = 4 3s,p,d1s+3p+5d = 9 4s,p,d,f1s+3p+5d+7f = 16 nn typesn2n2

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The Electron Configuration

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Explain the pattern of configuration using the Periodic Table. Explain the Aufbau, Pauli and Hund rules. Write the electron configuration or orbital box diagrams for a variety of atoms and ions.

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Pauli Exclusion Principle Electrons are constantly spinning which results in a magnetic field. Two electrons can occupy the same orbital only if they have opposite spins. Each orientation for a sublevel contains a maximum of 2 e -.

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Energy Level SublevelsTotal #e - capacity 1s12 2s,p1+3 = 48 3s,p,d1+3+5 = 918 4s,p,d,f1+3+5+7 = 1632 nn typesn2n2 2n 2

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1s2s 2p3s 3p 3d n = 1 n = 2 n = 3

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Aufbau Principle Unexcited electrons fill the lowest, most stable, energy orbital available – ground state. Range of energies contains some overlap between higher principle levels.

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Hund rule Electrons must enter empty orbitals of equal energy first before joining occupied orbitals.

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Electron Configuration Orbital Box Diagrams 1s2s 2p3s 3p 3d 4s

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Energy level (n) of valence electrons is the same as the period of the atom. Periodic Table shows orbital filling for the electron configuration of elements. 12345671234567

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Draw orbital box and electron config for carbon. C: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1s2s 2p Draw orbital box and electron config for Mg. Mg: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 1s2s 2p3s

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Draw electron config for germanium. Ge – atomic number 32 Ge: 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2 Shorthand notation using noble gas kernels. Ge: [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 [Ar]

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1 2 3 4 5 Use the periodic table to help write the shorthand configurations for Mn and Ag. Mn: [Ar] 4s 2 3d 5 Ag: [Kr] 5s 2 4d 9

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Valence electrons are the electrons found in the outer-most or highest quantum level (n). F = 9 electrons 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 The valence configuration is 2s 2 2p 5 Ge = 32 electrons 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2 The valence configuration is 4s 2 4p 2

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Valence electrons also removed from highest quantum level (n) in positive ions. F - = 9 electrons + 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 The ION configuration is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Fe +2 = 26 electrons - 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6 The ION configuration is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 6

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Some exceptions to the rule:

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Exceptions exist as the energy differences between higher energy sublevels become smaller. Half-filled and completely filled subshells have extra stability – causes electron promotion.

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Cr: [Ar] 4s 2 3d 4 Cu: [Ar] 4s 2 3d 9 Actual configurations: Cr: [Ar] 4s 1 3d 5 Cu: [Ar] 4s 1 3d 10 4s 3d 4s 3d Electron promotion accounts for multiple ionization states (Fe +2, Fe +3 …)

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CAN YOU ? / HAVE YOU? Explain the pattern of configuration using the Periodic Table. Explain the Aufbau, Pauli and Hund rules. Write the electron configuration or orbital box diagrams for a variety of atoms and ions.

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