2 Electron Configuration: A method for communicating the location and number of electrons in the electron energy levels.3p5Principal Quantum Number = 3Orbital = pNumber of electron(s) in the orbital(s) = 5
3 The arrangement of electrons follows the Aufbau Principle. (means building-up in German) in the ground state, the electrons will fill the atomic orbital of lowest energy.An electron configuration is a listing of the number and kinds of electrons in order of increasing energy, written in a single line.Example: Li 1s2 2s1The order, from left to right, is the order of increasing energy of the orbitals
6 The order is: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d etc.
7 Procedure for Writing and Electron Configuration: Step 1: Determine the position of the element in the periodic table and the total number of electrons in the atom or simple ion.Step 2: Start assigning electrons in increasing order of main energy levels and sublevels.Step 3: Continue assigning electrons by filling each sublevel before going on to the next sublevel, until all the electrons are assigned.
9 EXCEPTIONS: Chromium (24 electrons) EC = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p64s23d4 is INCORRECTEC = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p64s13d5 is CORRECT!The d-orbital becomes half-filled so, it changes to 4s13d5 instead.The next element, Manganese will have an EC of:1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p64s23d5
10 This exception also appears near the end of the d-orbital filling: Copper EC = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p64s23d9 is INCORRECT EC = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s23p64s13d10 is CORRECT Additional exceptions are Mo 5s14d5; Ag 5s14d10; Au 6s15d10 That is reasonable considering their position on the periodic chart.
11 Expanded and Condensed Electron Configurations What you had just learned is the expanded notation of writing EC.Example:Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 Expanded formNa: [Ne] 3s Condensed formThe “ [Ne] ” is called a kernel = [closest noble gas]ONLY NOBLE GASES CAN BE USED AS THE KERNELFinish with Chemquest #15 electron configuration and the periodic table.
12 Rules for drawing orbital-Box diagrams Similar to EC, except, you are now expected to draw out the orbitals and place the electrons to show proper spinning.Rules for drawing orbital-Box diagramsThe Pauli Exclusion Principle-each orbital can hold 2e-, where those 2e- are always in opposite spin.2) Hund's Rule –Electrons occupy all the orbitals of a given sublevel singly before pairing begins. Spins of electrons in different incomplete orbitals are parallel in the ground state.The most stable arrangement of electrons in the subshells is the one with the greatest number of parallel spins.
13 Suppose we want to draw the orbital-box diagram of carbon: Step 1: Draw the orbitals.Step 2: Fill the electrons in the 1st two s-orbitals, showing opposite spin. These electrons must fill the lower energy orbitals first before advancing to the next higher energy level (AUFBAU’s PRINCIPLE).Step 3: Fill the 2p sublevels one at a time (HUND’s RULE).
18 IONS Lose electrons = become positively charged (Cation) VALENCE ELECTRONSThe electrons in the outermost shell of the Bohr diagram.Lose electrons = become positively charged (Cation)Gain electrons = becomes negatively charged (Anion)Start with forming ions Chemquest Inquiry activity #18
19 ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS OF IONS Electrons do not come out the same way as we put them in according to the Aufbau Principle.Electrons leave the outer most shell first.Let's look at V vs V2+23V 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d3Try a few more anions and cations. Remember + means it has lost electrons, - means it has gained electrons.23V2+ 1s22s22p63s23p63d3