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Isotope Formulae, Electron Configurations & Orbital Diagrams

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Isotope Formulae Provide elements symbol Mass number –mass# = #p + + #n –written as a superscript to the left Atomic number –atomic# = #p + or #e - –written as a subscript to the left

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Isotope Formulae X Mass# Atomic# C 12 6 Carbon has two naturally occurring isotopes: carbon-12 and carbon-13 C 13 6

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Isotope Formulae Give the isotope formula for each of the following: H Hydrogen with 2 neutrons 2. Fluorine with 9 neutrons 3. Uranium with 143 neutrons F 18 9 U

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Valence Electron(s) The electron(s) farthest from the nucleus or in the outermost energy level.

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Aufbau Principle Comes from German word meaning to build Electrons will occupy lower energy orbitals first

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Pauli Exclusion Principle An atomic orbital can hold at most two electrons. If an atomic orbital holds two electrons, they must have opposite spins.

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Hunds Rule When filling atomic orbitals of equal energy, place electrons with parallel spins in the orbitals first. Then, place the oppositely spinning electrons in to the orbitals.

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Electron Configurations Also describe where electrons live within an atom Its like a translation of quantum numbers. They give the energy level, atomic orbital, and number of electrons residing in the orbital and energy level.

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Electron Configurations Energy level –May be any positive integer –Just like the principal quantum number

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Electron Configurations Atomic Orbital or Sublevel –Represented by letters: s, p, d, f –Translates azimuthal number and magnetic number –s is the same as l = 0 –p is the same as l = 1 –d is the same as l = 2 –f is the same as l = 3

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Electron Configurations Number of Electrons –in either an atomic orbital or a sublevel –max of 2 in the s sublevel –max of 6 in the p sublevel –max of 10 in the d sublevel –max of 14 in the f sublevel

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Electron Configurations Use the periodic table to guide you in writing electron configurations. Find the link between 2,6,10, and 14 and the periodic table.

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Electron Configurations Hydrogen 1s 1 energy level sublevel/ orbital # of electrons

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Electron Configurations Write the e - configurations of the next 9 elements (through Ne). 1s 2 He… 1s 2 2s 1 Li… 1s 2 2s 2 Be… 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 B… Look at the sum of the superscripts…

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Electron Configurations 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 C… 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 N… 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 O… 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 F… 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Ne…

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Electron Configurations Shorthand configurations are written by assuming that you can let the symbol of the noble gas preceding the valence electrons represent the e - configuration to that point.

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Electron Configurations …shorthand 1s 2 He… [He]2s 1 Li… [He]2s 2 Be… [He]2s 2 2p 1 B… [He]2s 2 2p 2 C…

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Electron Configurations …shorthand [He]2s 2 2p 3 N… [He] 2s 2 2p 4 O… [He] 2s 2 2p 5 F… [He] 2s 2 2p 6 Ne…

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Electron Configurations …shorthand [Ne]3s 1 Na… [Ne] 3s 2 3p 2 Si… [Ne] 3s 2 3p 5 Cl… [Ne] 3s 2 3p 6 Ar…

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Electron Configurations …shorthand [Ar]4s 2 Ca… [Ar] 4s 2 3d 1 Sc… [Ar] 4s 2 3d 5 Mn… [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 4 Se…

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Electron Configurations …shorthand [Kr] 5s 2 4d 10 5p 5 I… [Xe] 6s 2 5d 1 La… [Xe] 6s 2 5d 1 4f 1 Ce… [Xe] 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 Hg…

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Exceptional Electron Configurations…shorthand [Ar] 4s 2 3d 4 Cr… [Ar] 4s 2 3d 9 Cu… [Kr] 5s 2 4d 4 Mo… [Kr] 5s 2 4d 9 Ag… [Ar] 4s 1 3d 5 [Ar] 4s 1 3d 10 [Kr] 5s 1 4d 5 [Kr] 5s 1 4d 10

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Orbital Diagrams Show the electron configuration while illustrating the Aufbau Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle, and Hunds Rule Place energy on the y-axis Use lines to represent orbitals Use up and down arrows to indicate spin

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Orbital Diagrams (template) E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

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Orbital Diagram for H E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

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Orbital Diagram for He E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

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Orbital Diagram for Be E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

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Orbital Diagram for C E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

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Orbital Diagram for O E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

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Orbital Diagram for P E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

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Wrap-Up Write the electron configuration for nitrogen. Write the orbital diagram for nitrogen.

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