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Isotope Formulae, Electron Configurations & Orbital Diagrams.

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Presentation on theme: "Isotope Formulae, Electron Configurations & Orbital Diagrams."— Presentation transcript:

1 Isotope Formulae, Electron Configurations & Orbital Diagrams

2 Isotope Formulae Provide elements symbol Mass number –mass# = #p + + #n –written as a superscript to the left Atomic number –atomic# = #p + or #e - –written as a subscript to the left

3 Isotope Formulae X Mass# Atomic# C 12 6 Carbon has two naturally occurring isotopes: carbon-12 and carbon-13 C 13 6

4 Isotope Formulae Give the isotope formula for each of the following: H Hydrogen with 2 neutrons 2. Fluorine with 9 neutrons 3. Uranium with 143 neutrons F 18 9 U

5 Valence Electron(s) The electron(s) farthest from the nucleus or in the outermost energy level.

6 Aufbau Principle Comes from German word meaning to build Electrons will occupy lower energy orbitals first

7 Pauli Exclusion Principle An atomic orbital can hold at most two electrons. If an atomic orbital holds two electrons, they must have opposite spins.

8 Hunds Rule When filling atomic orbitals of equal energy, place electrons with parallel spins in the orbitals first. Then, place the oppositely spinning electrons in to the orbitals.

9 Electron Configurations Also describe where electrons live within an atom Its like a translation of quantum numbers. They give the energy level, atomic orbital, and number of electrons residing in the orbital and energy level.

10 Electron Configurations Energy level –May be any positive integer –Just like the principal quantum number

11 Electron Configurations Atomic Orbital or Sublevel –Represented by letters: s, p, d, f –Translates azimuthal number and magnetic number –s is the same as l = 0 –p is the same as l = 1 –d is the same as l = 2 –f is the same as l = 3

12 Electron Configurations Number of Electrons –in either an atomic orbital or a sublevel –max of 2 in the s sublevel –max of 6 in the p sublevel –max of 10 in the d sublevel –max of 14 in the f sublevel

13 Electron Configurations Use the periodic table to guide you in writing electron configurations. Find the link between 2,6,10, and 14 and the periodic table.

14 Electron Configurations Hydrogen 1s 1 energy level sublevel/ orbital # of electrons

15 Electron Configurations Write the e - configurations of the next 9 elements (through Ne). 1s 2 He… 1s 2 2s 1 Li… 1s 2 2s 2 Be… 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 B… Look at the sum of the superscripts…

16 Electron Configurations 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 C… 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 N… 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 O… 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 F… 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Ne…

17 Electron Configurations Shorthand configurations are written by assuming that you can let the symbol of the noble gas preceding the valence electrons represent the e - configuration to that point.

18 Electron Configurations …shorthand 1s 2 He… [He]2s 1 Li… [He]2s 2 Be… [He]2s 2 2p 1 B… [He]2s 2 2p 2 C…

19 Electron Configurations …shorthand [He]2s 2 2p 3 N… [He] 2s 2 2p 4 O… [He] 2s 2 2p 5 F… [He] 2s 2 2p 6 Ne…

20 Electron Configurations …shorthand [Ne]3s 1 Na… [Ne] 3s 2 3p 2 Si… [Ne] 3s 2 3p 5 Cl… [Ne] 3s 2 3p 6 Ar…

21 Electron Configurations …shorthand [Ar]4s 2 Ca… [Ar] 4s 2 3d 1 Sc… [Ar] 4s 2 3d 5 Mn… [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 4 Se…

22 Electron Configurations …shorthand [Kr] 5s 2 4d 10 5p 5 I… [Xe] 6s 2 5d 1 La… [Xe] 6s 2 5d 1 4f 1 Ce… [Xe] 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 Hg…

23 Exceptional Electron Configurations…shorthand [Ar] 4s 2 3d 4 Cr… [Ar] 4s 2 3d 9 Cu… [Kr] 5s 2 4d 4 Mo… [Kr] 5s 2 4d 9 Ag… [Ar] 4s 1 3d 5 [Ar] 4s 1 3d 10 [Kr] 5s 1 4d 5 [Kr] 5s 1 4d 10

24 Orbital Diagrams Show the electron configuration while illustrating the Aufbau Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle, and Hunds Rule Place energy on the y-axis Use lines to represent orbitals Use up and down arrows to indicate spin

25 Orbital Diagrams (template) E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

26 Orbital Diagram for H E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

27 Orbital Diagram for He E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

28 Orbital Diagram for Be E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

29 Orbital Diagram for C E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

30 Orbital Diagram for O E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

31 Orbital Diagram for P E 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3p x 3p y 3p z 3s

32 Wrap-Up Write the electron configuration for nitrogen. Write the orbital diagram for nitrogen.

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