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**Isotope Formulae, Electron Configurations & Orbital Diagrams**

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**Isotope Formulae Provide element’s symbol Mass number Atomic number**

mass# = #p+ + #n written as a superscript to the left Atomic number atomic# = #p+ or #e- written as a subscript to the left

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**X C C Isotope Formulae Mass# Atomic# 12 6 13 6**

Carbon has two naturally occurring isotopes: carbon-12 and carbon-13 C 12 6 C 13 6

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Isotope Formulae Give the isotope formula for each of the following: H 3 1 1. Hydrogen with 2 neutrons F 18 9 2. Fluorine with 9 neutrons U 235 92 3. Uranium with 143 neutrons

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Valence Electron(s) The electron(s) farthest from the nucleus or in the outermost energy level.

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**Aufbau Principle Comes from German word meaning “to build”**

Electrons will occupy lower energy orbitals first

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**Pauli Exclusion Principle**

An atomic orbital can hold at most two electrons. If an atomic orbital holds two electrons, they must have opposite spins.

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Hund’s Rule When filling atomic orbitals of equal energy, place electrons with parallel spins in the orbitals first. Then, place the oppositely spinning electrons in to the orbitals.

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**Electron Configurations**

Also describe where electrons live within an atom It’s like a translation of quantum numbers. They give the energy level, atomic orbital, and number of electrons residing in the orbital and energy level.

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**Electron Configurations**

Energy level May be any positive integer Just like the principal quantum number

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**Electron Configurations**

Atomic Orbital or Sublevel Represented by letters: s, p, d, f Translates azimuthal number and magnetic number s is the same as l = 0 p is the same as l = 1 d is the same as l = 2 f is the same as l = 3

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**Electron Configurations**

Number of Electrons in either an atomic orbital or a sublevel max of 2 in the s sublevel max of 6 in the p sublevel max of 10 in the d sublevel max of 14 in the f sublevel

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**Electron Configurations**

Use the periodic table to guide you in writing electron configurations. Find the link between 2,6,10, and 14 and the periodic table.

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**Electron Configurations**

Hydrogen energy level 1s1 # of electrons sublevel/orbital

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**Electron Configurations**

Write the e- configurations of the next 9 elements (through Ne). He… 1s2 Li… 1s22s1 Look at the sum of the superscripts… Be… 1s22s2 B… 1s22s22p1

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**Electron Configurations**

1s22s22p2 N… 1s22s22p3 O… 1s22s22p4 F… 1s22s22p5 Ne… 1s22s22p6

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**Electron Configurations**

Shorthand configurations are written by assuming that you can let the symbol of the noble gas preceding the valence electrons represent the e- configuration to that point.

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**Electron Configurations …shorthand**

He… 1s2 Li… [He]2s1 Be… [He]2s2 B… [He]2s22p1 C… [He]2s22p2

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**Electron Configurations …shorthand**

[He]2s22p3 O… [He] 2s22p4 F… [He] 2s22p5 Ne… [He] 2s22p6

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**Electron Configurations …shorthand**

Na… [Ne]3s1 Si… [Ne] 3s23p2 Cl… [Ne] 3s23p5 Ar… [Ne] 3s23p6

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**Electron Configurations …shorthand**

Ca… [Ar]4s2 Sc… [Ar] 4s23d1 Mn… [Ar] 4s23d5 Se… [Ar] 4s23d104p4

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**Electron Configurations …shorthand**

[Kr] 5s24d105p5 La… [Xe] 6s25d1 Ce… [Xe] 6s25d14f1 Hg… [Xe] 6s24f145d10

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**Exceptional Electron Configurations…shorthand**

Cr… [Ar] 4s23d4 [Ar] 4s13d5 Cu… [Ar] 4s23d9 [Ar] 4s13d10 Mo… [Kr] 5s24d4 [Kr] 5s14d5 Ag… [Kr] 5s24d9 [Kr] 5s14d10

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Orbital Diagrams Show the electron configuration while illustrating the Aufbau Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle, and Hund’s Rule Place energy on the y-axis Use lines to represent orbitals Use up and down arrows to indicate spin

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**Orbital Diagrams (template)**

3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for H 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for He 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for Be 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for C 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for O 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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Orbital Diagram for P 3px 3py 3pz 3s E 2px 2py 2pz 2s 1s

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**Wrap-Up Write the electron configuration for nitrogen.**

Write the orbital diagram for nitrogen.

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