Presentation on theme: "The School District of Philadelphia Office of Assessment Office of Early Childhood Education Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Teacher Development."— Presentation transcript:
The School District of Philadelphia Office of Assessment Office of Early Childhood Education Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Teacher Development Literacy Assessment Tool – Grades K-3 Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)
DRA Overview The DRA is a standardized system of benchmark running records used to assess reading development in Kindergarten to Grade 3. It is administered individually using specially selected leveled texts.
DRA Overview The DRA is used to assess all regular and special education students and English Language Learners in Kindergarten to Grade 3. The DRA is used as a tool to help the teacher determine a student’s highest instructional reading level.
DRA - Materials Leveled Texts from the DRA kit Copy of Student Scripts at a variety of levels
DRA Overview The DRA enables teachers to systematically observe, record, and evaluate change in a student’s reading performance. The teacher learns about a student’s reading ability by observing oral reading behaviors. This information is used to help the teacher to identify an appropriate range of reading levels for instruction.
DRA – Where to begin Choosing the best starting point is extremely important. You need to choose a level that is a good estimate of where a student can be successful If the student has more that the suggested maximum number of errors, STOP and begin again at a lower level If a student is close to the suggested maximums, the teacher may use professional judgment to continue. Be careful that the student does not become frustrated at the beginning of the assessment.
DRA – Where to begin If the student easily reads the level with few or no errors in a short amount of time, the teacher should move the student to a higher level. The student is not required to read every level in order. Once the appropriate level has been established, continue to give the assessment until the student reaches the Frustration level.
DRA – Administraton Teacher chooses a text they feel the student would be most successful with for an initial assessment based on the information gathered during daily lessons and Guided Reading observations. Teacher follows the scripted introduction to the passage. Student looks through the text to familiarize him/herself with the story.
DRA – Administration Student orally reads the text. In higher levels, the student reads the first two pages aloud and finishes the story silently. Copy of text is in front of teacher and she/he is following along and making notes on the student information sheet.
DRA – Administration Next, the student retells the story. The teacher has a complete retelling on the score sheet to assist with the scoring process. The DRA also provides specific questions to use if students need a prompt.
DRA – Administration The teacher should be conscious of repeated omissions or substitutions that might be an indicator of a dialect or speech problem rather than a reading problem.
DRA – Administration Introducing the text to the student may look like: “I am going to ask you to read a story aloud to me. Read it as best you can. I can’t help you; so if you come to a word you don’t know, just try your best. I am going to take some notes while you are reading so I can remember what you say.”
DRA – Administration Let the student take a picture walk through the text. “The story you are going to read is called _______(supply the title) It is about __________” DRA provides a one line summary for each text. Tell the student that they will be retelling the story to you from beginning to end.
DRA – Administration You must establish the student’s highest instructional level before ending the assessment.
DRA – Conference Formats Levels A-2 (7-8 minutes) Teacher selects text Teacher introduces text Teacher reads 1 or 2 pages Child points and reads rest of story Teacher takes record of oral reading Teacher asks response questions Teacher asks preference questions
DRA – Conference Formats Levels 3-16 (10-15 minutes) Teacher or student selects text Teacher introduces text Child looks at pictures tells what is happening or identifies topics within informational text Child reads story aloud Teacher takes record of oral reading Child retells story or information read Teacher asks response questions Teacher asks preference questions
DRA – Conference Formats Levels 18 and above (15-20 minutes) Teacher introduces text Child reads first 2-4 paragraphs aloud Child predicts what will happen in story or previews identifying topics within informational text
DRA – Conference Formats Levels 18 and above (15-20 minutes) Child reads complete story silently. Child retells story or shares information gained from text. Teacher asks response questions. Child reads selected portion of text aloud. Teacher takes record of oral reading Teacher asks preference questions.
DRA – Scoring the Assessment The scoring guide involves: Accuracy – the score based on the percentage of words read correctly. The # of errors is recorded on the student record sheet. Fluency and Phrasing – good readers read in longer, meaningful phrases with effective expression that reflects the author’s intended message. They read quickly and smoothly. The teacher fills in the student information sheet with this information. Retelling – the teacher enters a score of 1-4 on the text specific scoring rubric for several comprehension skills
DRA – Scoring the Assessment Scoring samples for “One Cold, Wet Night ” If the student reads: “One Cold, Windy Night” – Mark as substitution “One Cold, Night” – Mark as an omission “One Cold and Wet Night” – Mark as an insertion “One Cold, Wet Wet Night” – Mark as a repetition “One Cold, Winter/Wet Night” – Mark as a self-correction “One Cold, Wet...Night” – Mark as teacher told
DRA – Scoring the Assessment Teacher counts the miscues that were not corrected by the student and enters the number on the scoring chart. Teacher then totals the points the student earned for comprehension through retelling.
DRA – Scoring the Assessment Teacher fills in the student’s score for decoding and comprehension using the passage specific rubric. Teacher notes the student’s fluency and phrasing because slow and/or choppy reading, even with a high degree of accuracy, is not good reading.
DRA Analysis Reading behaviors include: Cross-checking one source of information against another. Self correction through predicting, monitoring and searching for additional information. Some behaviors continue across grade levels and should not be considered in isolation
DRA Analysis Reading behaviors include: Searching for and using meaning, language structure, and visual information. Self monitoring (checking on their own reading using meaning, syntax or visual information).
DRA – Determining Reading Levels Independent Level Accuracy of 98% or higher Retelling score of 22 and above Reading should be fluent and demonstrate appropriate reading behaviors
DRA – Determining Reading Levels Instructional Level Accuracy of 90% and higher Retelling score of Reading may be less fluent but retains a sense of rhythm and expression
DRA – Determining Reading Levels Frustration Level Accuracy is less than 90% Retelling score is 15 or less Reading lacks fluency and expression and may be word by word
DRA – Analyzing the Assessment Performance-based assessments Important to move beyond score to look at strategies/skills student used effectively, ineffectively or not at all. Example : Did the error or substitution Make sense? Look like the correct word? Cause the student to reread and correct the error?
DRA – Analyzing the Assessment Teacher needs to consider what the student did when text became difficult to decode or understand Did the student Stop? Reread? Ask the teacher for help?
DRA – Analyzing the Assessment These considerations help the teacher decide on a teaching plan to meet that student’s needs at the highest instructional level.
DRA – Next Steps The more times DRA is administered, the more comfortable and confident the teacher will become with the tool. Thoughtful and reflective practice will improve results and impact student achievement.
Important Reminders The teacher determines the student’s highest instructional reading level. It is rare to find a student who is instructional at a single level. When you work at the student’s highest instructional level, you will accelerate his/her reading progress.
Frequently Asked Questions Do I have to give the DRA before each report card period? It is not necessary to stop teaching for weeks so you can give every student an individually administered assessment before report cards. If you are working with the students in small guided groups on a regular basis and have collected anecdotal information and other documentation, you already know the highest instructional level with much certainty.
Frequently Asked Questions Does the DRA determine a student’s instructional reading level? The DRA alone does not determine a student’s instructional reading level for report cards but does provide information to help teachers make the determination.
Frequently Asked Questions When should I administer the DRA? DRA should be administered at least twice over the course of the school year The June reading level is used as the instructional level in September. Administer the DRA if you need additional instructional information about a student early in the school year. Administer the DRA when progress appears to be stalled or to confirm that significant progress is made and a student is moving quickly through and across reading levels.
Frequently Asked Questions How can I document student progress? You must be able to document the progress a student has made to administrators and parents and the effectiveness of your instructional program. Documentation could include: Anecdotal and Observation notes from Guided Reading lessons Analysis of the student’s writing samples Informal running records Formal assessments: DRA
Frequently Asked Questions Can a student look back at the text during the retelling? If a student knows to look back to find an answer, he/she is allowed to do so. You cannot suggest it to him/her. Unfortunately, most struggling readers do not use rereading as a strategy for comprehension. It is an important strategy and must be taught.
Frequently Asked Questions Why can I let a student look back during the retelling? Students can look back while retelling and answering questions on the DRA since we are not using the tool to determine the highest instructional reading level.
Contact Information Donna Orenstein, Lead Assessment Coach Office of Assessment Arnetta Imes, Lead Academic Coach Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Teacher Development Lyn Bauer, School Growth Specialist Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Teacher Development Renee Queen Jackson, Lead Academic Coach Office of Early Childhood Education