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The School District of Philadelphia

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1 The School District of Philadelphia
Office of Assessment Office of Early Childhood Education Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Teacher Development Literacy Assessment Tool – Grades K-3 Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) Welcome to the on line training on the Administration and Scoring of the Development Reading Assessment (DRA) This has been a collaborative effort with the Office of Assessment, Office of Early Childhood Education and the Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development. This power point presentation will guide you through the test administration, guidelines for scoring and other basic information If you have additional questions, contact information is provided at the end of the power point presentation.

2 DRA Overview The DRA is a standardized system of benchmark running records used to assess reading development in Kindergarten to Grade 3. It is administered individually using specially selected leveled texts. The following is an explanation of what DRA is. Take a few moments to read the next two slides.

3 DRA Overview The DRA is used to assess all regular and special education students and English Language Learners in Kindergarten to Grade 3. The DRA is used as a tool to help the teacher determine a student’s highest instructional reading level.

4 DRA - Materials Leveled Texts from the DRA kit
Copy of Student Scripts at a variety of levels Check with your School Based Literacy Leader or Grade Chairperson for the school policy regarding access to DRA materials.

5 DRA Overview The DRA enables teachers to systematically observe, record, and evaluate change in a student’s reading performance. The teacher learns about a student’s reading ability by observing oral reading behaviors. This information is used to help the teacher to identify an appropriate range of reading levels for instruction. Read slide

6 DRA – Where to begin Choosing the best starting point is extremely important. You need to choose a level that is a good estimate of where a student can be successful If the student has more that the suggested maximum number of errors, STOP and begin again at a lower level If a student is close to the suggested maximums, the teacher may use professional judgment to continue. Be careful that the student does not become frustrated at the beginning of the assessment. It is important to choose the best starting point based on what the teacher knows about the student as a reader. Please review the information on this slide.

7 DRA – Where to begin If the student easily reads the level with few or no errors in a short amount of time, the teacher should move the student to a higher level. The student is not required to read every level in order. Once the appropriate level has been established, continue to give the assessment until the student reaches the Frustration level. The student is not required to read every level in order.

8 DRA – Administraton Teacher chooses a text they feel the student would be most successful with for an initial assessment based on the information gathered during daily lessons and Guided Reading observations. Teacher follows the scripted introduction to the passage. Student looks through the text to familiarize him/herself with the story. Read bullet 2 Please be aware that the scripted introduction can be found at the top of the student script page

9 DRA – Administration Student orally reads the text.
In higher levels, the student reads the first two pages aloud and finishes the story silently. Copy of text is in front of teacher and she/he is following along and making notes on the student information sheet. Read slide

10 DRA – Administration Next, the student retells the story.
The teacher has a complete retelling on the score sheet to assist with the scoring process. The DRA also provides specific questions to use if students need a prompt. Read slide If needed, the use of a prompt will support the student’s retelling.

11 DRA – Administration The teacher should be conscious of repeated omissions or substitutions that might be an indicator of a dialect or speech problem rather than a reading problem. Please review the information on repeated omissions or substitutions

12 DRA – Administration Introducing the text to the student may look like: “I am going to ask you to read a story aloud to me. Read it as best you can. I can’t help you; so if you come to a word you don’t know, just try your best. I am going to take some notes while you are reading so I can remember what you say.” Please review the sample of what you would say to a student during the text introduction.

13 DRA – Administration Let the student take a picture walk through the text. “The story you are going to read is called _______(supply the title) It is about __________” DRA provides a one line summary for each text. Tell the student that they will be retelling the story to you from beginning to end. Read BOLD bullets

14 DRA – Administration You must establish the student’s highest instructional level before ending the assessment. Read slide

15 DRA – Conference Formats
Levels A-2 (7-8 minutes) Teacher selects text Teacher introduces text Teacher reads 1 or 2 pages Child points and reads rest of story Teacher takes record of oral reading Teacher asks response questions Teacher asks preference questions Please read the next four slides to review conference formats at specific text levels

16 DRA – Conference Formats
Levels 3-16 (10-15 minutes) Teacher or student selects text Teacher introduces text Child looks at pictures tells what is happening or identifies topics within informational text Child reads story aloud Teacher takes record of oral reading Child retells story or information read Teacher asks response questions Teacher asks preference questions

17 DRA – Conference Formats
Levels 18 and above (15-20 minutes) Teacher introduces text Child reads first 2-4 paragraphs aloud Child predicts what will happen in story or previews identifying topics within informational text

18 DRA – Conference Formats
Levels 18 and above (15-20 minutes) Child reads complete story silently. Child retells story or shares information gained from text. Teacher asks response questions. Child reads selected portion of text aloud. Teacher takes record of oral reading Teacher asks preference questions.

19 DRA – Scoring the Assessment
The scoring guide involves: Accuracy – the score based on the percentage of words read correctly. The # of errors is recorded on the student record sheet. Fluency and Phrasing – good readers read in longer, meaningful phrases with effective expression that reflects the author’s intended message. They read quickly and smoothly. The teacher fills in the student information sheet with this information. Retelling – the teacher enters a score of 1-4 on the text specific scoring rubric for several comprehension skills Please read this slide to review the scoring guide

20 Please review this record of oral reading guidelines

21 DRA – Scoring the Assessment
Scoring samples for “One Cold, Wet Night” If the student reads: “One Cold, Windy Night” – Mark as substitution “One Cold, Night” – Mark as an omission “One Cold and Wet Night” – Mark as an insertion “One Cold, Wet Wet Night” – Mark as a repetition “One Cold, Winter/Wet Night” – Mark as a self-correction “One Cold, Wet...Night” – Mark as teacher told Let’s look at a scoring sample for “One Cold, Wet Night” Read slide with emphasis on BOLDED words

22 DRA – Scoring the Assessment
Teacher counts the miscues that were not corrected by the student and enters the number on the scoring chart. Teacher then totals the points the student earned for comprehension through retelling. Read slide

23 DRA – Scoring the Assessment
Teacher fills in the student’s score for decoding and comprehension using the passage specific rubric. Teacher notes the student’s fluency and phrasing because slow and/or choppy reading, even with a high degree of accuracy, is not good reading. Read slide

24 DRA Analysis Reading behaviors include:
Cross-checking one source of information against another. Self correction through predicting, monitoring and searching for additional information. Some behaviors continue across grade levels and should not be considered in isolation Reading behaviors continue across grade levels and should not be considered in isolation.

25 DRA Analysis Reading behaviors include:
Searching for and using meaning, language structure, and visual information. Self monitoring (checking on their own reading using meaning, syntax or visual information). Read slide

26 DRA – Determining Reading Levels
Independent Level Accuracy of 98% or higher Retelling score of 22 and above Reading should be fluent and demonstrate appropriate reading behaviors Reading levels include Independent, Instructional and Frustration. Review the following three slides with information for determining reading levels

27 DRA – Determining Reading Levels
Instructional Level Accuracy of 90% and higher Retelling score of 16-21 Reading may be less fluent but retains a sense of rhythm and expression

28 DRA – Determining Reading Levels
Frustration Level Accuracy is less than 90% Retelling score is 15 or less Reading lacks fluency and expression and may be word by word

29 DRA – Analyzing the Assessment
Performance-based assessments Important to move beyond score to look at strategies/skills student used effectively, ineffectively or not at all. Example : Did the error or substitution Make sense? Look like the correct word? Cause the student to reread and correct the error? It is important to move beyond the score and look at what the student did at the” point of error” Refer to the sample on the screen

30 DRA – Analyzing the Assessment
Teacher needs to consider what the student did when text became difficult to decode or understand Did the student Stop? Reread? Ask the teacher for help? Refer to the sample on the screen

31 DRA – Analyzing the Assessment
These considerations help the teacher decide on a teaching plan to meet that student’s needs at the highest instructional level. Read slide For additional instructional support please refer to the Office of Curriculum and Instruction’s Making Sense of the Literacy Curriculum Resource Guide.

32 DRA – Next Steps The more times DRA is administered, the more comfortable and confident the teacher will become with the tool. Thoughtful and reflective practice will improve results and impact student achievement. Let’s look at next steps

33 Important Reminders The teacher determines the student’s highest instructional reading level. It is rare to find a student who is instructional at a single level. When you work at the student’s highest instructional level, you will accelerate his/her reading progress. Let’s look at important reminders for the DRA Assessment Read BULLETS 2 and 3

34 Frequently Asked Questions
Do I have to give the DRA before each report card period? It is not necessary to stop teaching for weeks so you can give every student an individually administered assessment before report cards. If you are working with the students in small guided groups on a regular basis and have collected anecdotal information and other documentation, you already know the highest instructional level with much certainty. Many teachers have similar questions regarding the DRA. Please review these frequently asked questions on the following six slides

35 Frequently Asked Questions
Does the DRA determine a student’s instructional reading level? The DRA alone does not determine a student’s instructional reading level for report cards but does provide information to help teachers make the determination.

36 Frequently Asked Questions
When should I administer the DRA? DRA should be administered at least twice over the course of the school year The June reading level is used as the instructional level in September. Administer the DRA if you need additional instructional information about a student early in the school year. Administer the DRA when progress appears to be stalled or to confirm that significant progress is made and a student is moving quickly through and across reading levels.

37 Frequently Asked Questions
How can I document student progress? You must be able to document the progress a student has made to administrators and parents and the effectiveness of your instructional program. Documentation could include: Anecdotal and Observation notes from Guided Reading lessons Analysis of the student’s writing samples Informal running records Formal assessments: DRA

38 Frequently Asked Questions
Can a student look back at the text during the retelling? If a student knows to look back to find an answer, he/she is allowed to do so. You cannot suggest it to him/her. Unfortunately, most struggling readers do not use rereading as a strategy for comprehension. It is an important strategy and must be taught.

39 Frequently Asked Questions
Why can I let a student look back during the retelling? Students can look back while retelling and answering questions on the DRA since we are not using the tool to determine the highest instructional reading level.

40 Contact Information Donna Orenstein, Lead Assessment Coach Office of Assessment Arnetta Imes, Lead Academic Coach Office of Curriculum, Instruction, and Teacher Development Lyn Bauer, School Growth Specialist Renee Queen Jackson, Lead Academic Coach Office of Early Childhood Education This has been an on line training for Development Reading Assessment (DRA). Contact information is listed on the screen.

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