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1 DIBELS The School District of Philadelphia Office of Assessment Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development Office of Early Childhood.

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Presentation on theme: "1 DIBELS The School District of Philadelphia Office of Assessment Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development Office of Early Childhood."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 DIBELS The School District of Philadelphia Office of Assessment Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development Office of Early Childhood Literacy Assessment Tools – Grades K -1 Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills DIBELS Administration and Scoring of Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)

3 2 Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Big Idea: Benchmark Goal: Assessment Times: - Phonemic Awareness - 35 end of K –18 at middle of K - Kindergarten: Winter, spring - First Grade: Fall, winter, spring Note: PSF may also be used with older students who may not have the skill.

4 3 Phoneme Segmentation Fluency What Big Idea? Phonemic Awareness

5 4 Materials Palm Pilot Pencil-Paper Scoring booklet Clipboard Stopwatch Pen or pencil Palm Pilot

6 5 What is Phonemic Awareness? The awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our language Understanding that spoken words are made up of sequences of individual speech sounds: – “cat” is composed of the sounds /k/ /a/ /t/

7 6 Phonemic Awareness What is a phoneme? –Smallest unit of speech that makes a difference to the meaning of a word How many phonemes are in the word… bat? boat? both? cloth? clothes? 3/b/ /a/ /t/ 3/b/ /oa/ /t/ 3/b/ /oa/ /th/ 4/k/ /l/ /o/ /th/ 5/k/ /l/ /oa/ /TH/ /z/

8 7 Phonemic Awareness Tasks Phoneme isolation: Tell me the first sound in boy. (/b/) Phoneme identity: Tell me the sound that is the same in bike, boy, and bell. (/b/) Phoneme categorization: Which word does not belong? Bus, bun, rug (rug) Phoneme blending: What word is /t/ /ea/ /ch/? (teach) Phoneme segmentation: What are the sounds in ship? (/sh/ /i/ /p/) Phoneme deletion: What is smile without the s? (mile)

9 8 Is Phonemic Awareness the same as Phonological Awareness? Phonological awareness is the “umbrella.” syllables rhymes onset-rime phonemes words

10 9 a m v p s If you can do it with your eyes closed, it is phonemic awareness! Is Phonemic Awareness the Same as Phonics?

11 10 Why Phonemic Awareness? Phonemic Awareness is essential to learning to read in an alphabetic writing system. –Letters represent sounds/phonemes –Phonemic awareness is fundamental to mapping speech sounds to print. –Without phonemic awareness, phonics makes little sense. Phonemic Awareness is a strong predictor of children’s reading acquisition and achievement. Phonemic Awareness can be taught; reading outcomes are improved when children are taught phonemic awareness.

12 11 When Should Phonemic Awareness be Taught? Preschool -- Listening to sounds, alliteration, rhyming. Kindergarten-- Isolating first sound in 1-syllable words; Blending 3-4 phonemes into one word; Segmenting individual sounds in words. First Grade -- Segmenting and manipulating individual sounds in words.

13 12 Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Examiner says a word. Student says the sounds in the word. Score: Number of correct sound segments student says in 1 minute.

14 13 Directions for Administration 1.Place the scoring booklet on the clipboard and position it so that the student cannot see what you record. Say these specific directions to the student: I am going to say a word. After I say it, you tell me all the sounds in the word. So, if I say, “Sam,” you would say /s/ /a/ /m/. Let’s try one. (one second pause) Tell me the sounds in “mop.”

15 14 3.Say the first word and start your stopwatch. 4.As the student says the sounds, mark the student response in the scoring column. Underline each different, correct part of the word that the student says. Put a slash ( / ) through incorrect sounds. Leave omitted sounds blank. Circle repeated words. Directions

16 15 5.As soon as the student is finished saying the sounds, present the next word promptly and clearly. 6.At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket (]) after the last sound segment, stop presenting words and scoring further responses. 7.Add the number of correct sound segments. Record the total number of correct sound segments on the bottom of the scoring page. Directions

17 16 Timing Rule for PSF: Continuous for 1 Minute Start the stopwatch after you say the first word. At the end of 1 minute place a bracket (]) after the last sound segment, say “Stop” and stop your stopwatch. Do not present more words. Do not score further responses.

18 17 Wait Rule for PSF: 3 Seconds Maximum time for each sound segment is 3 seconds. If the student does not say the next sound segment within 3 seconds, say the next word.

19 18 Discontinue Rule: First 5 Words If a student has not said any sound segments correctly in the first 5 words, discontinue the task and record a score of zero (0).

20 19 Prompting Rule If a student has done the examples correctly and does not respond correctly to the words, say, “Remember to tell me the sounds in the word.” This prompt may be given once.

21 20 Directions for Scoring Underline the correct sound segments the student says. Students receive 1 point for each different, correct, part of the word. Put a slash ( / ) through segments pronounced incorrectly. Leave segments that are omitted blank. Circle entire words.

22 21 Scoring Examples: Underline Correct Sound Segments STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS: trick/t/…/r/…/i/…/k//t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 4 /4 cat/k/…/a/…/t//k/ /a/ /t/ 3 /3 Correct Phoneme Segmentation Examiner says “trick,” student says “/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/”. Examiner says “cat,” student says “/k/ /a/ /t/”. Note: Sounds pronounced with a schwa (/u/) are judged to be correct (e.g., tu…ru…i…ku; ku…a…tu).

23 22 Incomplete Segmentation Examiner says “trick,” student says “/tr/ /ik/”. Examiner says “cat,” student says “/k/ /at/”. STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS: trick/tr/ /ik//t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 2 /4 cat/k/ /at//k/ /a/ /t/ 2 /3 Scoring Examples: Underline Correct Sound Segments

24 23 Overlapping Segmentation Examiner says “trick,” student says “/tri/ /ik/.” Examiner says “cat,” student says “/ka/ /a/ /at/.” STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS: trick“/tri/ /ik/”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 2 /4 cat“/ka/ /a/ /t/”/k/ /a/ /t/ 3 /3 Scoring Examples: Underline Correct Sound Segments

25 24 Sound Elongation (Continuous blending) Examiner says “rest,” student says “rrrrreeeesssttt.” STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS: rest“rrrreeeessssttt”/r/ /e/ /s/ /t/ 4 /4 Scoring Examples:Underline Correct Sound Segments

26 25 Incorrect Sound Examiner says “trick,” student says “t...r...i...p.” Examiner says “cat,” student says “b...a...t.” STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS: trick“t...r...i...p”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 3 /4 cat“b…a...t”/k/ /a/ /t/ 2 /3 trick“t…r…uk”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 2 /4 cat“k…ut”/k/ /a/ /t/ 1 /3 Scoring Examples: Slash (/) Incorrect Sound Segments Note: The sound segment as a whole is judged to be correct or incorrect.

27 26 Additions Examiner says “trick,” student says “t...r...i...ck...s.” Examiner says “cat,” student says “s...c...a...t.” STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS: trick“t...r...i...k…s”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 4 /4 cat“s…c...a...t”/k/ /a/ /t/ 3 /3 Scoring Examples: Leave Blank

28 27 Omissions Examiner says “trick,” student says “t...ick.” Examiner says “cat,” student says /k/...(3 seconds). STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS trick“t...ik”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 2 /4 cat“c” (3 seconds)/k/ /a/ /t/ 1 /3 Scoring Examples: Leave Blank

29 28 No Segmentation Examiner says “trick,” student says “trick.” Examiner says “cat,” student says “cat.” Note: If a student segments a part of the word and then repeats the word, underline the sound and then circle the word. STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS trick“trick”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 0 /4 cat“cat”/k/ /a/ /t/ 0 /3 cat/k/ /kat//k/ /a/ /t/ 1 /3 Scoring Examples: Circle

30 29 Scoring Examples: No Score “I don’t know” Examiner says “trick,” student says “I don’t know” or “I don’t know that one.” Do not underline; wait 3 seconds and say the next word. STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS trick“I don’t know.”/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 0 /4 cat“I don’t know.”/k/ /a/ /t/ 0 /3

31 30 STUDENT SCORING CORRECT WORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS: rest“r…e…th…t”/r/ /e/ /s/ /t/ 4 /4 Note Articulation and Dialect The student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or different first language. Example: Examiner says “rest,” the student who consistently says /th/ for /s/ says “r…e…th…t.”

32 31 Final Score: Scoring Page Add number of correct sound segments for each line (up to bracket). Record total for each line in space provided in right hand column of scoring page. Add number of correct sound segments from each line. Record total number of correct sound segments in space provided in lower right hand corner of scoring page. 6 5 2 3 5 5 5 31

33 32 Final Score: Benchmark Assessment Transfer total number of correct sound segments from scoring page to front of benchmark assessment booklet. What does a score of 31 on PSF mean at the beginning of first grade? in middle of K? What will you do if you have any question about the accuracy/validity of the benchmark score? 31

34 33 Pronunciation Guide Different regions of the country use different dialects of American English. These pronunciation examples may be modified consistent with regional dialects and conventions.

35 34 Pronunciation of R-Controlled Vowels r-controlled vowels: /ar/ /ir/ and /or/ are treated as 1 phoneme. /air/ /ear/ and /oor/ are treated as 2 phonemes.

36 35 Examples: R-controlled Vowels short /sh/ /or/ /t/ bird /b/ /ir/ /d/ heart /h/ /ar/ /t/ bear /b/ /ai/ /r/ hear /h/ /ea/ /r/ sure /sh/ /oo/ /r/

37 36 Voiced and Unvoiced Sounds Voiced and unvoiced sounds: Score ‘em as you hear ‘em, on the fly and in real time. Don’t sweat the minutia.

38 37 /ng/ is treated as one phoneme. Other phonemes are pretty straight forward. Pronunciation Guide

39 38 General Accommodations Setting/Examiner: –Test in alternate setting, e.g., complete quiet, minimal distractions, enhanced lighting. –Test with familiar person, specialist, etc. present. –Test by person with specialized training (e.g., SLP). Directions: –Check student’s understanding (have the student repeat what to do). –Provide directions in student’s primary language. –Repeat practice example, provide an additional example. –Provide lead example (e.g., do it with me) in addition to model. Note: It is always permissible to retest, i.e., repeat assessment on different days with different forms.

40 39 PSF Review How do I mark a completely segmented word? Underline below the sound segment. What do I do if the student repeats the word? Circle the word. What do I mark if the student skips a sound? Leave blank. How do I record an incorrect sound? Slash the sound. How do I mark that a child blended two sounds? Mark a single underline under the blended sounds. What do I do if a child hesitates for 3 seconds? Leave blank and say the next word.

41 40 PSF Summary Start timer after you say the first word. Underline Sound Segment (1 point for each segment underlined) Slash (0 points) Leave Blank (0 points) Says correct sound segment Adds schwa sound to correct sound. Pronounces sound incorrectly due to articulation delay/dialect/different first language Elongates sounds Says incorrect sound segment Adds sound (if separate from other sound segments) Omits sound Word repetition: Circle the word. Incomplete (blended) segmentation: Underline blended sound segments. Overlapping segmentation: Underline each segment. Three-second Rule: Score as incorrect and say the next word. Discontinue Rule: No correct sound segments in the first five words.

42 41 Contact Information Arnetta Imes, Lead Academic Coach –Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development aimes@phila.k12.pa.us Lyn Bauer, School Growth Specialist –Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Teacher Development mbauer@phila.k12.pa.us Donna Orenstein, Lead Assessment Coach –Office of Assessment dorenste@phila.k12.pa.us Renee Queen Jackson, Lead Academic Coach –Office of Early Childhood –rqueenjackson@phila.k12.pa.us


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