Presentation on theme: " America was finally in – Europeans celebrated in France and England Mobilization in the U.S. 4 million men enter military service 2 million went."— Presentation transcript:
America was finally in – Europeans celebrated in France and England Mobilization in the U.S. 4 million men enter military service 2 million went to France 1.4 million saw combat 56,000 died in combat 58,000 died of disease
Americans in France June1918, U.S. troops arrive in France in great numbers and were under the command of General John J. Pershing American troops had an independent role and also helped British and French troops on Western Front Strength & Energy of fresh U.S. troops broke the stalemate and turned the tide of the war toward the allies
July 1918 -Turning point of WWI Last German offensive and first allied victory of 1918 250,000 Americans fought German attack failed when Allied counterattack led by French and American forces overwhelmed the Germans.
German front began collapsing as the German people began to protest the war. British naval blockades meant that the German people were starving and rioting. In October 1918 the head of the German navy resigned and the German navy mutinied. Kaiser Wilhelm II relinquished his power November 9, 1918 and the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918.
Allied PowersCentral Powers 42 million served23 million served 22 million casualties15 million casualties
Paris Peace Conference Held at the Palace of Versailles; conference started on January 18, 1919. Delegates representing 32 countries were attending Allied powers were still struggling to solve their conflicts over peace treaties. Major decisions were hammered out by the Big Four.
The Big Four The Allied Leaders were known as the “Big Four.” They were: President Woodrow Wilson – U.S. Premier Georges Clemenceau – France Prime Minister David Lloyd George – Britain Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando – Italy Russia, Germany, nor any of the Central Powers were not represented.
The Paris Peace Conference: January 18 – June 28, 1919
Wilson’s 14 Points Points 1-5 were aimed at the war’s MAIN Causes: No secret treaties/ alliances Freedom of the seas free trade move towards ending colonialism/ imperialism Points 6-13 were aimed at Self- Determination- allowing people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live. League of Nations- Wilson’s 14 th Point and his most loved! Goal would be to keep peace among nations.
Germany is forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles, even though they received no input Most angering was Article 231 – the War Guilt Clause – where Germany was forced to take the entire blame for the war This meant that they would be forced to pay reparations for all damages from the war The treaty adopted Wilson’s 14 th point, and created the League of Nations.
The League was to be an international association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations. All member nations represented in the General Assembly and their was an International Court of Justice established in the Netherlands to hear complaints.
Wilson’s Return to U.S. He sold the idea of the League to the Allies, but had more difficulty convincing the U.S. Senate. Wilson was met with extreme opposition when he returned to the states as many wanted a return to isolationism. Toured the country trying to gain support for the treaty but Henry Cabot Lodge (opponent) trailed him verbally attacking him along the way. Wilson collapses from a stroke that paralyzes half his body on the tour. He spends the rest of his term in bed. Congress not happy with Article X which morally bound the US to aid any member of the League of Nations who is victimized. Henry Cabot Lodge
The main points of the Treaty [BRAT] 1. Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war 2. Germany paid Reparations for the damage done during the war.
3. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.
4. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe (see map). Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.
After the war Germany was: politically unstable (Kaiser Wilhelm flees country); Poor -reparations payment was $4oo billion and they were expected to pay it back by 1988! angry and betrayed; the Great Depression of the 1930s made it worse looking for a hero…
Creation of New Nations The Western Powers had signed different treaties in 1919 and 1920 with each of the other defeated nations: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. New countries created out of Austria-Hungary: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. All of these countries were now recognized as independent nations. The Ottoman Turks were forced to give up almost their entire empire, and only kept modern day Turkey.