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 America was finally in – Europeans celebrated in France and England  Mobilization in the U.S.  4 million men enter military service  2 million went.

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Presentation on theme: " America was finally in – Europeans celebrated in France and England  Mobilization in the U.S.  4 million men enter military service  2 million went."— Presentation transcript:

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2  America was finally in – Europeans celebrated in France and England  Mobilization in the U.S.  4 million men enter military service  2 million went to France  1.4 million saw combat  56,000 died in combat  58,000 died of disease

3  Americans in France  June1918, U.S. troops arrive in France in great numbers and were under the command of General John J. Pershing  American troops had an independent role and also helped British and French troops on Western Front  Strength & Energy of fresh U.S. troops broke the stalemate and turned the tide of the war toward the allies

4  July Turning point of WWI  Last German offensive and first allied victory of 1918  250,000 Americans fought  German attack failed when Allied counterattack led by French and American forces overwhelmed the Germans.

5  German front began collapsing as the German people began to protest the war.  British naval blockades meant that the German people were starving and rioting.  In October 1918 the head of the German navy resigned and the German navy mutinied.  Kaiser Wilhelm II relinquished his power November 9, 1918 and the armistice was signed on November 11, 1918.

6 Allied PowersCentral Powers 42 million served23 million served 22 million casualties15 million casualties

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8 Paris Peace Conference  Held at the Palace of Versailles; conference started on January 18,  Delegates representing 32 countries were attending  Allied powers were still struggling to solve their conflicts over peace treaties.  Major decisions were hammered out by the Big Four.

9 The Big Four The Allied Leaders were known as the “Big Four.” They were: President Woodrow Wilson – U.S. Premier Georges Clemenceau – France Prime Minister David Lloyd George – Britain Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando – Italy Russia, Germany, nor any of the Central Powers were not represented.

10 The Paris Peace Conference: January 18 – June 28, 1919

11  Wilson’s 14 Points  Points 1-5 were aimed at the war’s MAIN Causes:  No secret treaties/ alliances  Freedom of the seas  free trade  move towards ending colonialism/ imperialism  Points 6-13 were aimed at Self- Determination- allowing people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live.  League of Nations- Wilson’s 14 th Point and his most loved!  Goal would be to keep peace among nations.

12  Germany is forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles, even though they received no input  Most angering was Article 231 – the War Guilt Clause – where Germany was forced to take the entire blame for the war  This meant that they would be forced to pay reparations for all damages from the war  The treaty adopted Wilson’s 14 th point, and created the League of Nations.

13  The League was to be an international association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations.  All member nations represented in the General Assembly and their was an International Court of Justice established in the Netherlands to hear complaints.

14 Wilson’s Return to U.S.  He sold the idea of the League to the Allies, but had more difficulty convincing the U.S. Senate.  Wilson was met with extreme opposition when he returned to the states as many wanted a return to isolationism.  Toured the country trying to gain support for the treaty but Henry Cabot Lodge (opponent) trailed him verbally attacking him along the way.  Wilson collapses from a stroke that paralyzes half his body on the tour. He spends the rest of his term in bed.  Congress not happy with Article X which morally bound the US to aid any member of the League of Nations who is victimized. Henry Cabot Lodge

15  The main points of the Treaty [BRAT]  1. Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war  2. Germany paid Reparations for the damage done during the war.

16  3. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.

17  4. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe (see map). Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.

18  After the war Germany was:  politically unstable (Kaiser Wilhelm flees country);  Poor -reparations payment was $4oo billion and they were expected to pay it back by 1988!  angry and betrayed; the Great Depression of the 1930s made it worse  looking for a hero…

19 Creation of New Nations  The Western Powers had signed different treaties in 1919 and 1920 with each of the other defeated nations: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.  New countries created out of Austria-Hungary: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. All of these countries were now recognized as independent nations.  The Ottoman Turks were forced to give up almost their entire empire, and only kept modern day Turkey.

20 New Nations &Territories After WW I

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