Presentation on theme: "Industrial use of archaea for integrated Pollution Control-Waste Water, Gases , Soil Bioremediation, and the Biodiversity Conservation Euring. Bela TOZSER."— Presentation transcript:
1 Industrial use of archaea for integrated Pollution Control-Waste Water, Gases , Soil Bioremediation, and the Biodiversity ConservationEuring. Bela TOZSERExpert UN&EU Commission, Managing and Engineering Director ,Envirosan DCH-7100 Szekszárd, Rizling Str. 11. POB.:199.HungaryWeb: envizont.eu
2 Table of contents Industrial use of archaea Integrated, innovative complex for growth of archaeOpportunities of application and perspectives
3 Archaea Archaea are the smallest independently living single-celled organisms on earthTypical cells range in size from 0.5 to1.0 µmin diameterDNA lies free in the cell cytoplasmA cell membrane comprised of phospholipidssurrounds the cell.The cell wall is usually made up ofprotein and carbohydrate and lipids.Most of the time they undergo asexual reproduction,mostly by dividing in half – some cells divide every 12–20 minutes, others take a lot longer.All organisms require carbon, which provides building blocks for cell materialsArchaebacteria are also known as "extremophiles," thanks to their ability to survive in extreme environments such as very hot and very cold climates.
4 ArchaeaColored transmission electron micrograph of the archaeaMethanospirillum hungatii undergoing cell divisionArchaea were originally thought to exist only in harsh environmentsWere often described as ‚extremophiles’They are widely distributed and are found alongside bacteria in many environments including soil and water.The best described groups of Archaea are the methanogens that produce methane, and the extremophiles that grow under high salt or extreme temperatures.Pyrodictum, for example, has an optimal growth temperature of 105°C.
5 Prokaryotic Cells First cell type on earth Cell type of Bacteria and ArchaeaNo membrane bound nucleusNucleoid = region of DNA concentrationOrganelles not bound by membranes
7 The archaebacteria have the following unique combination of traits: Prokaryotic traits:They are about 1 micrometer (μm) in diameter, the size of typical procaryotes.They lack membrane-bound organelles.They have nuclear bodies (nucleoids) rather than true, menbranee bound nuclei.Their ribosomes are 70 S, the size of those found in typical prokaryotes.Eukaryotic traits:Their cell walls completely lack peptidoglycan.Their protein synthesis machinery is sensitive to inhibitors that typically affect only eukaryotes and is resistant to many inhibitors that affect prokaryotes.Some of their proteins, pigments, and biochemical processes closely resemble those found in eukaryotic cells.
8 Archaebacteria include three groups: The methanogens, strict anaerobes that produce methane (CH4) from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.Extreme halophiles, which require high concentrations of salt for survival.Thermoacidophiles, which normally grow in hot, acidic environments.
9 Enzymes and proteins from organisms that grow near and above 100 °C Hyperthermophile group includes some methanogenic and sulfate- reducing speciesOnly a few species are saccharolytic.Most of the hyperthermophiles absolutely depend on the reduction of elemental sulfur (S0) to H2S for significant growth,The fermentative pathways appear to depend upon enzymes that contain tungsten
10 Extremophiles as a source of novel enzymes for industrial application Extremophilic microorganisms are adapted to survive in ecological niches:high temperatures,extremes of pH,high salt concentrationshigh pressure.These microorganisms produce unique biocatalysts which operateunder extreme conditionsSelected extracellular-polymer-degrading enzymes and other enzymes could be used in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries and in environmental biotechnology.(amylases, pullulanases, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, proteinases, esterases, glucose isomerases, alcohol dehydrogenases and DNA-modifying enzymes )A scanning electron micrograph of a ten-million-year-old Archaea.
11 Biotechnological applications of archaeal biomasses Biological methanogenesis is applied to the anaerobic treatment ofsewage sludge,agricultural, municipal and industrial wastesMethanogens are a group of microorganisms that obtain energy for growth from the reaction leading to methane production.Many bioreactor configurations have been exploitedto increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion,such asthe rotating biological contactor,the anaerobic baffle reactorthe upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor,several large-scale plants are in operation
12 Archaeal enzymes of biotechnological interest Natural and modified archaeal enzymes present huge possibilities for industrial applicationsMany archaeal enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism - special interest to the industrial biotechnology sector.The starch processing industry can profit from the exploitation of thermostable enzymes.Another promising application of hyperthermophilic archaeal enzymes is in trehalose production.Several other polymer-degrading enzymes isolated from archaea could play important roles in the chemical, pharmaceutical, paper, pulp or waste treatment industries. (xylanases and cellulases)Some archaeal metabolites have potential industrial applications.(proteins, osmotically active substances, exopolysaccharides and special lipids )Archaeal lipids have been proposed as monomers for bioelectronics
13 The solution from Envirosan DC. -CliEnvHeP3BiC-Climate-, environment-, and healthprotecting, bioenergetical, biotechnological and biorefinery ComplexWith the multifunctional climate-, environment-, healthprotecting, bioenergetical, biotechnological and biorefinery system the following functions can be realized:Utilization in the environment protectionBioenergetical utilizationBiotechnological – health protectional utilizationEnvironmental utilizationBiorefinery utilization
16 Utilization in the environment protection at the following emissioners: CO2- and other GHG bioconversion, real zero carbon emission and O2 output – carbon quotas can be sold, valuable bioproduct productionCement industryEnergy industryChemical industryVehiclesFood industryBiofuelsLime-burnersBiogas plantsPyrolysis plantsZero carbon emission of waste-fieldsBioenergetical utilization:With the help of the climate-protecting processes, the system produces energy- and energy sourcesThe increase of the energetical effectiveness of the biogas plantProduction of biofuelsHidrothermal gasificationCombined processes: trigen energyBioenergetical and biotechnologigal utilization of thermal waters and the dissolved gases of thermal watersBiofuel productionLandfill gas use without any kind of emissionEnergetical use of soiled gas wellsBio - batteries
18 Biotechnological – health protectional utilization Functional food producingProduction of C5, C6 sugar with versatile utilizationAnimal feed, protected protein- and fat production for ruminant animals, fish- and crabfeed, hatcheries, increase of spawn- and caviar productionProducts with iodin content in case of nuclear radiationPropagation of tribe-yeastsPharmaceutical groundmaterials, fine-biochemicals, vegetal stem-cells from archeas, medicinal fungus, herbs cells produced in closed/sterile systemBalneotherapy, wellness productsBeauty-care, skin-care, biocosmeticsBiotechnological care of the crop, pest controlComplex utilization of carbon-dioxide stations for high-end biotechnological developmentMicroalgaes, archaea for space-traveling and submarinesSynthesis-gas-production, biomaterials,biopolymers, bio building blocks, bioresins
19 Environmental utilization Reduce of the salt content of thermal-, and seawater with use of halofil micro-organismsIntesification of waste water cleaningNitrogen reduce of the fermentations fluid of the biogas plants, odour reducing/preventionDisposal of harmful wastesElimination of radioactive pollutionRegeneration of polluted soils (heavy metals, biological degradatible pollutions)Propagation of micro-organisms for soil- and pest control for seed-corn treatmentEnrichment of soils: biofertilizerWater-, and soil regeneration polluted with red-sludgeWater protection, restoration of biodiversityUtilization of non-fermentable organic waste (pyrolysis)Environment rehabilitationDecrease of air pollutionWaste management, utilization of organic wastesAir conditioning of closed areas, like spaceships, submarines
20 Biorefinery utilization biofuel diversificationbiochemicalsbiocharbohydtratesbioresinsBiochemicalsThe projects are adoptable for any geographycal locations.The size and complexity of the system is variable,The product-range is broadable.The size, the product-mix and the product volumes are changeable in connection with the market needs.From the container-form system to the bigggest giga-complexes is every form possible.It is posible to connect the system to polluting plants like heating plants, biogas plants, sewage farms, waste-fields etc.
23 Intensification of biomethanisation process of anaerobical digestion- archae contribution up to 30% incresing of process yieldHigh integration of biotechnological, environment and climate protection processes,very high efficiency in pollution control of waste-water : archae and microalgaefor increasing of biological treatment efficiencyCO2 GHG – atmospheric pollutants and extreme climate phenomena producing gases bioconvarsation to valuable energetical and biotechnological productswaste to energy factory of complex with anaerobical intensified digesters ,pirolysis reactors for non biodegradable organical wastes, biorefinery capacities for diversification of biofuelscontribution to soil bioremediation , biodiversity conservation by high quality biofertilizers
24 Dynamical photocatalytical bioreactors Capacities are harmonized to pollutant emissions, waste cantities, the complex is caracterized by really zero carbon emissionUse to complex valorification of natural resources : CO2- gas fields, thermal, mineral, brine, treated waste watwers, sea waterDesign of whole complex with multiple use and different size is fully finalized simulated, redy for developing of execution projectsFully authomatized and on-line monitorized processes, complex instrumentation, data processing and IT
25 Opportunities of application and perspectives Adaptability to specifique needs of China Asia, Europe and WorldwideThe implementations represent high social impacts for improving the quality of environment, protection of health, reducing the extreme climate phenomena, production of high amount of renewable energies.The economical efficiency is very high comparable to traditional processes by decresing of reactor capacities, investment and operational costs, valuable bioenergetical and biotechnological products,high amount of tradable CO2The concrete technico-economical parameters will be determined by feasibility studies-Boundless perspectives by introducing in industrial use of new archae, combinations of process with other microorganisms, development of technical contentsThe use of this complex ensure the biotechnology and bioenergy based sustainable development
26 SummaryThe use of archaea in framework of integrated industrial complexes for pollution control, waste water, gases,soil bioremediation, biofertilization and biodiversityconservation open new perspectives for increase the technical and economical efficiency of climate- environment- health protection, bioenergy production from waste, therefore for sustainable development.
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