Presentation on theme: "Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas is comprised primarily of methane."— Presentation transcript:
Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas is comprised primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. It originates from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel and it’s a product of the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as manure or sewage, municipal waste, and energy crops.
The methane in biogas gives it the ability to be used as a fuel. The combustion of which releases energy. In developing countries biogas can be used as a low-cost fuel for cooking. It can also be utilised in modern waste management facilities where it can be used in gas engines to generate electricity. Biogas is a renewable fuel and electricity produced from it can be used to attract renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world.
Production Composition Applications Biogasmax European Project Exit
Depending on where it is produced, biogas can also be called swamp, marsh, landfill or digester gas. A biogas plant is the name often given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy crops. Biogas can be produced utilising anaerobic digesters. These plants can be fed with energy crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste.
Landfill gas is produced by organic waste decomposing under anaerobic conditions in a landfill. The waste is covered and compressed mechanically and by the weight of the material that is deposited from above. This material prevents oxygen from accessing the waste and anaerobic microbes thrive. This gas builds up and is slowly released into the atmosphere if the landfill site has not been engineered to capture the gas. Landfill gas is hazardous for three key reasons. Landfill gas becomes explosive when it escapes from the landfill and mixes with oxygen within lower and higher explosive limits.
The methane in biogas forms explosive mixtures in air. The lower explosive limit is 5% methane and the upper explosive limit is 15% methane. The methane contained within biogas is 20 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Therefore uncontained landfill gas which escapes into the atmosphere significantly contributes to the effects of global warming. In addition to this volatile organic compounds contained within landfill gas contribute to the formation of photochemical smog. back
Typical composition of biogas   Matter % Methane, CH 4 50-75 Carbon dioxide, CO 2 25-50 Nitrogen, N 2 0-10 Hydrogen, H 2 0-1 Hydrogen sulphide, H 2 S0-3 Oxygen, O 2 0-2 The composition of biogas varies depending upon the origin of the anaerobic digestion process. Landfill gas typically has methane concentrations around 50%. Advanced waste treatment technologies can produce biogas with 55-75%CH4.
In some cases biogas contains siloxanes. These siloxanes are formed from the anaerobic decomposition of materials commonly found in soaps and detergents. During combustion of biogas containing siloxanes, silicon is released and can combine with free oxygen or various other elements in the combustion gas. Deposits are formed containing mostly silica (SiO2) or silicates (SixOy) and can also contain calcium, sulphur, zinc, phosphorus. These white mineral deposits build to a surface thickness of several millimetres and must be removed by chemical or mechanical means. back
Biogas can be utilised for electricity production, space heating, water heating and process heating. If compressed, it can replace compressed natural gas for use in vehicles, where it can fuel an internal combustion engine or fuel cells. Electricity
Biogasmax is a large-scale integrated project funded by the European Commission in order to ensure the market penetration of biogas as a vehicle fuel. The European Biogasmax project creates a network of biogas-related demonstrations in order to share best practices in managing sustainable urban transportation. The cities involved in Biogasmax include Stockholm, Gothenburg, Lille, Rome and Berne. back
Made by: Molcut Oana Carla Maria Lep Iulia Teodora Coordonated by: Schnabel Dieter