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Prokaryotic diversity Eubacteria & Archaebacteria Campbell & Reese Fig 26.1.

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Presentation on theme: "Prokaryotic diversity Eubacteria & Archaebacteria Campbell & Reese Fig 26.1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prokaryotic diversity Eubacteria & Archaebacteria Campbell & Reese Fig 26.1

2 Bacteria one-celled to simple colonies cells prokaryotic metabolism diverse Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

3 Archaeabacteria - extremophiles one-celled to simple colonies cells prokaryotic chemistry different than Bacteria metabolism diverse, “primitive” Grand prismatic pool, Yellowstone NP

4 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes cells small (1-5 μm diameter) unicellular no nucleus or organelles cell wall cells large (10-100 mm) unicellular or multicellular nucleus and organelles different cell wall when present C&R Fig 27.2

5 spherical (cocci) helical rod-shaped (bacilli) Prokaryote shape

6 Very small cells usually small (1-5 μm diameter) largest are Cyanobacteria and, *Thiomargarita namibiensis, "Sulfur Pearl of Namibia" T. namibiensis next to a fruit fly 1 mm

7 Prokaryotic cell walls maintain shape, protection complex chemically – peptidoglycan and lipids many antibiotics target this special chemistry Fig 27.5

8 aerobic prokaryote photosynthetic prokaryote Internal cellular structure one double stranded chromosome of DNA in the form of a ring smaller rings of DNA called plasmids specialized membranes for metabolic purposes no membrane-bound organelles

9 Movement Flagella (bacterial) Chemical gliding Link to Animated bacterial movement towards attractant Bacterial tumble movie

10 Asexual reproduction Binary fission *Growth of PneumococcusGrowth of Pneumococcus *Time lapse over 2 hours Resistant spores

11 Sexual change No real sexual reproduction transformation - the uptake of genes from the surrounding environment transduction - transfer of genes from viruses to prokaryotes conjugation - direct transfer of genes from prokaryote to prokaryote

12 Metabolic diversity

13 Nitrogen fixation Convert atmospheric nitrogen into biological form used in proteins and nucleic acids Anabaena, a photoautotroph, can also fix nitrogen. Heterocysts – cells specialized to carry out the process

14 Metabolism and oxygen obligate aerobes - oxygen required facultative aerobes - use oxygen when available but not required obligate anaerobes - poisoned by oxygen

15 most research has focused on their ecology rather than phylogeny extreme thermophiles extreme halophiles methanogens Archaebacteria

16 decomposers - recycle nutrients from dead organisms pathogens - cause human disease mutualists - live closely with another organism and both benefit Ecolgical impacts of prokaryotes

17 fermentation – vinegar, yogurt, cheese genetically engineered - insulin and interferon bioremediation – remove environmental contaminants Economic roles of prokaryotes pathogens - cause human disease source of unique compounds - T. aquaticus DNA polymerase

18 Are viruses alive? Virus structure *nucleic acids “genes” (DNA or RNA) *protein covering Other virus pictures (Electron micrographs)

19 Virus reproduction Require metabolic capabilities of a host cell Specific to host species/tissue/cell Recognize host cell surface Genes enter host Host follows instructions to build new virus Virus escapes

20 Virus diversity Many viruses In some ways more closely related to hosts than to each other

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