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Unit 3 Structure and Function Notes Part 1 Its Alive or, Is It? M. Elizabeth Martin Luther King, Jr. JHS 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 Structure and Function Notes Part 1 Its Alive or, Is It? M. Elizabeth Martin Luther King, Jr. JHS 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3 Structure and Function Notes Part 1 Its Alive or, Is It? M. Elizabeth Martin Luther King, Jr. JHS 2006

2 Chapter 2 Its Alive, or Is It 2.1 Characteristics of Living Things 2.2 The Simple Bare Necessities of Life 2.3 The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2 Review

3 2.1 Characteristics of Living Things The six characteristics of Living Things: 1. All living things have cells 2. All living things sense and respond to change 3. All living things reproduce 4. All living things have DNA 5. All living things use energy 6. All living things grow and develop

4 2.1 Characteristics of Living Things 1. All living things have cells Unicellular (single celled organisms) Unicellular (single celled organisms) Multicellular (organisms made of more than one kind of cells) Multicellular (organisms made of more than one kind of cells) Excludes viruses because virus are organisms that are made of DNA/RNA and a protein coat – not exactly a cell. Excludes viruses because virus are organisms that are made of DNA/RNA and a protein coat – not exactly a cell.

5 2. All living things sense and respond to change An important part of sensing and responding to environmental changes is maintaining homeostasis. Homeostasis– the maintenance of a stable internal environment despite a changing external environment

6 3. All living things reproduce There are two types of reproduction: Asexual – a single parent produces an identical offspring. Lots of organisms reproduce this way (bacteria and algae). When cells are cloned they are reproduced in this way. Sexual – requires two parents. Results in a lot better chance for genetic variation.

7 4. All living things have DNA DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid Provides instructions for making molecules – proteins that take part in all cellular functions and in the synthesis of other kinds of molecules needed for cells to exist. Provides instructions for making molecules – proteins that take part in all cellular functions and in the synthesis of other kinds of molecules needed for cells to exist. Sometimes called the blueprints of life. Sometimes called the blueprints of life. Reproduction involves making copies of DNA that is transferred to offspring. The transmission of characteristics/traits from one generation to another is called ____________ heredity

8 5. All living things use energy Metabolism – all chemical activities that use or make available energy. Producers – organisms that obtain energy from the sun (photosynthetic) or certain bacteria that use inorganic chemicals (chemosynthetic) Consumers – organisms that obtain energy by eating other organisms. Decomposers – Organisms that get their food from breaking down nutrients from dead organisms or animal wastes.

9 6. All living things grow and develop Even single celled organisms like bacteria grow slightly in size. Babies grow to adult from a single cell

10 2.2 The Simple Bare Necessities of Life Food Food Water Water Air Air A Place to Live A Place to Live

11 Food Organisms use protein, fats, and carbohydrates as our basic food groups. Organisms use protein, fats, and carbohydrates as our basic food groups. Organisms may also need trace minerals or vitamins in addition to the basic food groups. Organisms may also need trace minerals or vitamins in addition to the basic food groups. Organisms differ in their food needs. Organisms differ in their food needs.

12 Food We have discussed: We have discussed: Producers Producers Consumers Consumers Decomposers Decomposers Food eaters can also be broken down into type: Food eaters can also be broken down into type: Autotrophs Autotrophs Heterotrophs Heterotrophs - make their own food - eat other organisms - eat dead organisms - Create their own food - Obtain food from others

13 Essential Elements – Chemistry of Life The basic elements that make up most of biological molecules are The basic elements that make up most of biological molecules are Carbon Carbon Hydrogen Hydrogen Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Oxygen Phosphorous Phosphorous Sulfur Sulfur

14 Main Types of Molecules – Chemistry of Life The Main Types of Biological Molecules The Main Types of Biological Molecules Proteins – made of amino acids. Enzymes are special proteins that allow cell reactions to occur. Proteins – made of amino acids. Enzymes are special proteins that allow cell reactions to occur. Carbohydrates – starches made of sugars Carbohydrates – starches made of sugars Lipids – fats, phospholipids (what membranes are made of) Lipids – fats, phospholipids (what membranes are made of) Nucleic Acids – made of nucleotides Nucleic Acids – made of nucleotides ATP – useable cellular energy – adenosine tri phosphate ATP – useable cellular energy – adenosine tri phosphate

15 Water Water is the essence of life Water is the essence of life 70 percent of most cells are made of water 70 percent of most cells are made of water Humans can survive about 3 days without water Humans can survive about 3 days without water The chemical formula for water is H 2 O The chemical formula for water is H 2 O

16 Air Mixture of several different gases the main ones in order of highest concentration: Mixture of several different gases the main ones in order of highest concentration: Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Oxygen Argon Argon Water Vapor Water Vapor Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide

17 Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Oxygen is used for aerobic respiration in both plant and animal cells Oxygen is used for aerobic respiration in both plant and animal cells Oxygen is not used for anaerobic (without oxygen) respiration Oxygen is not used for anaerobic (without oxygen) respiration Green plants and other photosynthetic organisms need carbon dioxide in addition to oxygen. Green plants and other photosynthetic organisms need carbon dioxide in addition to oxygen. The carbon dioxide is for photosynthesis and oxygen used for aerobic respiration. The carbon dioxide is for photosynthesis and oxygen used for aerobic respiration.

18 Photosynthesis The energy that powers photosynthesis comes from the sun light. The energy that powers photosynthesis comes from the sun light. Occurs in the chloroplasts within plant cells Occurs in the chloroplasts within plant cells Chlorophyll a green pigment in chloroplasts absorb the suns energy that is then used to create glucose sugar Chlorophyll a green pigment in chloroplasts absorb the suns energy that is then used to create glucose sugar Starch is the complex carbohydrate plants use to store the glucose sugar molecules that plants produce during photosynthesis. Starch is the complex carbohydrate plants use to store the glucose sugar molecules that plants produce during photosynthesis.

19 Photosynthesis The chemical reaction for photosynthesis is: The chemical reaction for photosynthesis is: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 is the chemical formula for glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 is the chemical formula for glucose Glucose is the main product of photosynthesis. Glucose is the main product of photosynthesis. Oxygen is produced as a byproduct of splitting water during photosynthesis Oxygen is produced as a byproduct of splitting water during photosynthesis Sunlight

20 Respiration Occurs in mitochondria found in both animal and plant cells Occurs in mitochondria found in both animal and plant cells Oxygen is used to convert stored sugar (glucose) into useable chemical energy (ATP) Oxygen is used to convert stored sugar (glucose) into useable chemical energy (ATP)

21 A Place to live Some organisms need a lot of space to live. Some organisms need a lot of space to live. This is why governments are starting to create habitat management plans so that there are places for animals to live. This is why governments are starting to create habitat management plans so that there are places for animals to live. Animals need the help with finding a place to live because people have out competed animals for living place resources. Animals need the help with finding a place to live because people have out competed animals for living place resources.

22 Could life as we know it exist on Earth if air only contained oxygen? Life could not exist as we know it if air only contained oxygen because green plants, algae, and some bacteria need carbon dioxide gas as well as oxygen. Life could not exist as we know it if air only contained oxygen because green plants, algae, and some bacteria need carbon dioxide gas as well as oxygen. Without carbon dioxide photosynthesis could not occur and there would not be producers which consumers need to eat. Without carbon dioxide photosynthesis could not occur and there would not be producers which consumers need to eat.

23 Review In the cell membrane, ________________ (protein or phospholipid) molecules form two layers When a planarian worm is cut in half, each half develops into a whole worm. This is an example of __________ (asexual or sexual) reproduction (Proteins or Nucleic acids)______________ are sometimes called the blueprints of life (Homeostasis or Heredity) _______________is the passing of traits from one generation to the next (Metabolism or Homeostasis) _____________ refers to all of the chemical activities that an organisms cells perform. phospholipids asexual Nucleic acids Heredity Metabolism

24 6. _________ is a complex carbohydrate manufactured by plants. a. Oil c. Starch b. Protein d. Hemoglobin 7. When a duck dives under water, its inner eyelids automatically raise to cover the ducks eyes. In this case, water acts as__________ a. homeostasis. c. a reaction. b. a stimulus. d. an enzyme. 8. The molecule that provides energy for cellular processes is__________ a. ATP. c. RNA. b. DNA. d. protein. Starch a stimulus ATP

25 9. The subunits of proteins are __________ a. enzymes. c. nucleotides. b. amino acids. d. sugar molecules. 10. The subunits of nucleic acids are __________ a. enzymes. c. nucleotides. b. amino acids. d. sugar molecules. 11. Cells do not use ___________for energy storage. a. fats c. carbohydrates b. oils d. nucleic acids amino acids. nucleotides. nucleic acids

26 12. Plant cells need carbon dioxide which is used for __________ a. cellular respiration. c. photosynthesis. b. reproduction. d. fertilization. 13. The energy that powers photosynthesis comes from ______________. a. light from the sun. c. gas molecules. b. sugar breakdown. d. soil chlorophyll. 14. Chlorophyll absorbs ________________. a. water.c. light energy. b. carbon dioxide. d. soil oxygen photosynthesis Light from the sun Light energy

27 15. Food molecules are broken down to release energy by the _______________. a. ribosomes.c. mitochondria. b. endoplasmic reticulum.d. chloroplasts. 16. Most of the ATP produced by a cell is made in the __________________. a. ribosomes.c. mitochondria. b. endoplasmic reticulum.d. chloroplasts. mitochondria


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