D-STAR ’06 Amateur Digital Mode for the 21 st Century
Agenda Introduction to D-STAR Question/Answer Break Extracts from D-STAR 101 Class Question/Answer
Objectives Provide General Understanding of: –Overview of D-STAR Technology –D-STAR Systems Components –D-STAR System Installation –D-STAR Operations –D-STAR Applications –Opportunities for Amateurs from D-STAR
D-STAR is not necessarily what we expect –Forget everything you think you know about repeaters. –Forget everything you think you know about networking. Existing knowledge will help, IF you can ignore assumptions!
What is D-STAR? Why is D-STAR interesting? Who is interested? How will it be used? How do we get started? Open Discussion
What is D-STAR? –Digital Smart Technology for Amateur Radio –JARL Japanese Amateur Radio League NOT Manufacturers! –Goal Advancement of the hobby Spectrum Efficiency Experiment with Simultaneous Voice and Data –D-STAR Gateway owned by Icom Not Public Domain or Open Source May not be copied, shared or redistributed
Why is D-STAR interesting? –Spectral Efficiency –Simultaneous Voice and Data capability 2m/70cm/23cm –High-Speed Data capability 23cm –Internet Linking capability –Microwave Linking capability
Why is D-STAR interesting? –Spectral Efficiency 6.25 kHz emission 10 kHz channel spacing (reasonable) More efficient use of available bandwidth Allows more channels in crowded spectrum Better performance compared to analog FM –Same power in less bandwidth (SSB vs. AM)
International Systems Buenos Aires, Argentina Sao Paulo, Brazil Mexico City, Mexico
How will it be used? –Regular use, like FM (Enhanced) Data/Voice Simultaneously –Internet Linking –Emergency Communications –New Applications Applications are the BIG DEAL –Packet »DX Clusters »APRS
EmComm Applications Ends needless chatter –Data rather than voice –Immediate identification Callsign GPS Coordinates –Dispatch assets accurately
Fits inside a TNC-X box Converts D-STAR NMEA GPS data to Base-91 compressed APRS® Position Reports Converts Symbol and Text Data Filters messages according to a rich set of user-configurable rules Operates without a dedicated laptop or PC
μSmartDigi™ D-Gate Black box translator –D-PRS ® to APRS –APRS to D-PRS® Smooth RF integration of both systems
D-STAR Monitor Server based software package –Drives www.dstarusers.org websitewww.dstarusers.org –K5TIT Creators Pete Loveall AE5PL Gerry Dalton W5MAY Additional Stats for SYSOP
How do we get started? –Lots of interest beginning around the US and Canada –VHF, UHF & SHF radios currently available Mobiles Handhelds (On VHF & UHF Only) –Repeaters components available ID-RP2000V for 2m voice and low-speed data ID-RP4000V for 70cm voice and low-speed data ID-RP2V for 23 cm voice and low-speed data ID-RP2D for 23 cm high-speed data ID-RP2C Controller (Required)
Online Discussion Forums www.icomamerica.com/support/forums www.K5TIT.Org/Forum Other D-STAR Web Sites www.D-STARUsers.Org www.D-STARlet.Com www.aprs-is.net/dstartnc2.htm
Riley Hollingsworth, FCC “If there are three hams in a town, there will be two clubs.” Our existing atmosphere and the perceptions of us don’t always do everything to attract new amateurs
Perceptions of Amateur Radio, in General “My grandfather used to do that” “I can do better than that on the Internet” “It’s not much fun” Too many times, our hobby isn’t presented in the most flattering light
Perceptions of D-STAR D-STAR new to everyone Everyone still learning Lots of information sharing D-STAR operation is unusually friendly, so far
Opportunities with D-STAR Rediscover the fun in amateur radio Help advance the state of the hobby Learn some new techniques Help someone else learn what’s going on Welcome the new folks!
D-STAR Interesting Results Inactive club members getting active New hams joining New applications being built New opportunities with Served Agencies Lots of Attention being generated!
D-STAR gives us a chance to change some opinions about Amateur Radio. What do you want those opinions to be?
Site Equipment Programming RP2C Controller (MANDATORY!) Programmed via Ethernet. You MUST know its address! Default 172.16.0.1 Recommend 172.16.0.10 Recommend labeling RP2C with 172.16.0.x address Whatever you use, write it down! Parameters for Repeaters (suggestion) 23 cm on Port ‘A’ 70 cm on Port ‘B’ 2 m on Port ‘C’
Other Site Equipment PA’s Duplexers Filters Feedline Antenna Impact of Window Filters on System Performance
Congratulations, your repeater is on the air! Now What?
D-Star vs. FM Operation FM Frequency, Offset, PL Control codes, if available, for linking D-STAR Frequency, Offset, Mode, Call Signs (up to 4!) Gateway Operation User Linking, not site linking No person-to-person private conversations. Everyone on both ends hears both sides of the conversation. Probable confusion from D-STAR linking vs. normal experience (example in a moment)
D-STAR Local Operation No private conversations Open system Auto Rpt Set Feature Both Voice and Data Announcing presence (local & gateway)
Gateway Functions Authorization –Nothing crosses gateway if not authorized –Local usage unaffected Routing –Allows very cellular-like roaming Timing constraints, to be discussed a bit later. Not immediate
Gateway Requirements Fixed, Routable Internet IP Address Router must support Class ‘A’ Network on LAN Port Router must support Port Forwarding PC, with two NIC’s, Linux, as specified Unique call required, probably club call (NOT Trustee!) Gateway PC and RP2C must be co-located VPN testing NY & CA examples
Users all have Fixed IP Addresses IP Address only used on device on other side of ID-1 Radios are transparent bridges IP address not used for voice or low-speed data Use of multiple ID’s Use when multiple radios in use at same time (ie: ID-800 for voice, ID-1 for data) Routing all done by Call Sign, must differentiate
Gateway Call Routing All calls are source-routed Originating gateway determines complete route to output port/band No modification/rerouting by target Gateway Creates potential problems – discuss in later segment
Summary All Gateways configured identically Allows “roaming” Gateways require Fixed Internet address Gateway routers have MUST support Class ‘A’ LAN Gateway PC must be at site with RP2C Users all have fixed IP address assigned Radios are transparent bridges Gateway calls are Source-Routed
Registration No registration required for local use No call sign required for local use !!!! No private conversations both ends hear all User linking, not site linking Not all users on site can participate Opportunity for confusion!!!
Four call signs used MYCALL – Call sign of the originating station URCALL – Call sign of the desired target station ‘CQCQCQ’ or desired remote station RPT1 – Call sign (& port) of the originating repeater RPT2 – Call sign & designator of the gateway Can also be used for designated local cross-band use
User radio programming LOTS of memory channels Many different user setups Many radio features appear only in ‘SET’ mode or in software Programming software strongly recommended, especially for groups setting up many identical radios
Multiple ways to traverse Gateway User-Specific call “Follow-me Roaming” Sync Timing Issues Source Routing & gateway sync timing create inability to hear a user- specific call Zone call Example - URCALL = ‘/K5TIT’ Specific routing of zone call – defaults to Port ‘A’ Port-specific zone call Example – URCALL = ‘/K5TIT C’
Source Routing vs. Sync Timing Creates inability to receive User-specific call Discuss example
User Concerns User “error codes” ‘UR *’ ‘RPT ?’ ‘Did I make the repeater?’ Courtesy tone discussion Problems with full-duplex operation ‘Kerchunking a D-STAR system No squelch tail Watch for repeater response – visual indication
Interfacing Digital and Analog Systems Technically possible – of course! But maybe not a good idea… Limitations Analog users can’t vary call signs like URCALL & RPT2 Analog users can’t participate in all conversations Creates impression of “D-STAR doesn’t work” Analog users can’t see any included data D-STAR repeaters pass all D-STAR encoded voice and data. Good use of analog/digital interface Emergency situation, no gateway, local-only MUST limit confusion
Summary Lots of potential for use of simultaneous voice & data Spectral efficiency offers opportunity for better utilization Better performance from narrow spectrum & FEC Distinct operational differences from familiar FM New applications will drive acceptance EmComm demand for tactical voice and data communications by served agencies