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D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Presented by Texas Interconnect Team K5TIT.

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Presentation on theme: "D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Presented by Texas Interconnect Team K5TIT."— Presentation transcript:

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2 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Presented by Texas Interconnect Team K5TIT

3 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introductions Jim McClellanN5MIJ Pete LoveallAE5PL Lisa McClellanK5LRM Gerry DaltonW5MAY Bill MooreN5ZPR Al ShjarbackK1DO Fred VarianWD5ERD All Users. We can talk about reality! Session is being recorded. Please hold questions until asked. No additional recording or photography permitted.

4 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team D-STAR owned by JARL –Not owned by manufacturers –Not Public Domain Disclaimer –Not going to debate “what should be” or “why didn’t they…”

5 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team D-STAR Gateway owned by Icom –Not Public Domain or Open Source –May not be copied, shared or redistributed

6 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Version 1.2 of D-STAR in USA(?) –Ver 1.0 – Dec ’03, No Gateway, 2 users –Ver 1.1 – Jan ’05, Gateway, More users, systems –Ver 1.2 – May ’06, VHF/UHF repeaters, more new users & systems

7 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Objectives –Convey enough information to allow use of new hardware Repeater installation Gateway, if chosen User Radios –Convey sufficient Gateway information to allow you to join and protect D-Star network –Some information on 3 rd party applications developed –Gateway Certification Exam for new trustees No Sales Effort – Just real results & info Tight Schedule – lots of material

8 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR

9 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR D-STAR is not necessarily what we expect –Forget everything you think you know about repeaters. –Forget everything you think you know about networking. Existing knowledge will help, IF you can ignore assumptions!

10 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR D-STAR summary –Simultaneous digital voice and data –Better Spectral Efficiency –Better Performance –Applications, Applications, Applications

11 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR

12 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team

13 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR D-Star vs. FM Operation FM Frequency, Offset, PL Control codes, if available, for linking D-STAR Frequency, Offset, Mode, Call Signs (up to 4!) Gateway Operation User Linking, not site linking No person-to-person private conversations. Everyone on both ends hears both sides of the conversation. Probable confusion from D-STAR linking vs. normal experience Will explore in detail later in class

14 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR Site Equipment Programming RP2C Programmed via Ethernet. You MUST know its address! Default Recommend Recommend labeling RP2C with x address Parameters for Repeaters (suggestion) 23 cm on Port ‘A’ 70 cm on Port ‘B’ 2 m on Port ‘C’

15 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR

16 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR Site Equipment Programming RP2V, RP2000V, RP4000V Programmed individually via USB. Multiple COM ports, unless over- ridden Tx Freq Rx Freq

17 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR

18 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR Site Equipment Programming RP2D Programmed via USB. Multiple COM ports, unless over-ridden Freq Offset

19 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR

20 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR Other Site Equipment PA’s Duplexers Filters Feedline Antenna Impact of Window Filters on System Performance

21 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Introduction to D-STAR Questions/Discussion

22 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Overview

23 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Overview Gateway Functions Authorization –Nothing crosses gateway if not authorized –Local usage unaffected Routing –Allows very cellular-like roaming Timing constraints, to be discussed a bit later. Not immediate

24 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Overview

25 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Overview D-Star Gateways Identical Implementations Call sign, Internet Address, & MAC address change Benefits Specific Network segments & recommendations x ( > ) x (NO CHANGES* No additions!)

26 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Overview

27 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Overview Gateway Requirements Fixed, Routable Internet IP Address Router must support Class ‘A’ Network on LAN Port Router must support Port Forwarding PC, with two NIC’s, Linux, as specified Unique call required, probably club call (NOT Trustee!) Gateway PC and RP2C must be co-located VPN testing NY & CA examples

28 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Overview Users all have Fixed IP Addresses IP Address only used on device on other side of ID-1 Radios are transparent bridges IP address not used for voice or low-speed data Use of multiple ID’s Use when multiple radios in use at same time (ie: ID-800 for voice, ID-1 for data) Routing all done by Call Sign, must differentiate

29 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Overview Gateway Call Routing All calls are source-routed Originating gateway determines complete route to output port/band No modification/rerouting by target Gateway Creates potential problems – discuss in later segment

30 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Overview Summary All Gateways configured identically Allows “roaming” Gateways require Fixed Internet address Gateway routers have MUST support Class ‘A’ LAN Gateway PC must be at site with RP2C Users all have fixed IP address assigned Radios are transparent bridges Gateway calls are Source-Routed

31 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Overview Questions/Discussion

32 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts

33 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts Gateway driven by 3 data tables GIP - list of known Gateway systems RIP - list of IP Block reservations for users MNG - list of users and most recent Gateway

34 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts

35 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts

36 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts

37 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts Primary Data Tables in MEMORY Disk files are backups of last generation No way to directly edit memory tables MNG has limited “delete” Indirect editing only “write”/edit/”read” synchronization issues

38 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts Boot sequence of new gateway Synchronizes with TRUST_SERVER Pulls GIP, RIP, & MNG tables Contacts EVERY Gateway in GIP table for sync Database is replicated, not distributed Network is full-mesh, not hierarchical

39 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts Periodic Gateway Sync Daily Whenever contacts are made inter-zone Timing? Problems resulting from Gateway sync timing Users unable to hear directed calls (source routing!) Propagation of errors throughout network Hard to remove

40 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts How to force clean start Shut down gateway processes – dsgwd & dsipsvd Completely clear /var/dsipsvd directory Reboot Gateway Tables in memory not cleared if processes restarted

41 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts Potentially many independent D-STAR networks All based on definition of TRUST_SERVER System cannot participate in multiple networks would cross-sync and merge networks

42 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts Summary Three primary tables – GIP, RIP, & MNG tables Primary tables are in memory Disk files are backup Gateway pull initial tables from TRUST_SERVER Cannot directly edit tables Process for cleaning & restarting

43 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway and Data File Concepts Questions/Discussion

44 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Break

45 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification

46 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Process Overview Build System Test & Validate with Icom Test System Completely clear the system Change to production TRUST_SERVER Reboot Test & Validate Importance of Validation on Test System vs. Production

47 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Building the Gateway RS-RP2C Setting Manual – READ FIRST! Linux Installation Fedora Core 4. FC 5 Not yet verified. Watch configuration of ‘named’. Manual not clear Test & validate ‘named’ as described in manual Generally, don’t run GUI – set runlevel as instructed

48 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Router Information Need MAC address of LAN port on router Many have labels. Some are correct. ‘arp’ command will always give correct data.

49 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification

50 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Gateway Installation Run the ‘tar’ command from the ‘/’ directory! Follow instructions to copy.conf files Configure /etc/dsgwd.conf & /etc/dsipsvd.conf Set TRUST_SERVER to TEST SYSTEM! Configure /etc/syslog.conf for log files – VERY helpful! Create /var/dsipsvd

51 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Startup of GATEWAY MANUAL IS WRONG Significant typo on p.6!

52 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification

53 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Correct Startup Both processes running (dsgwd * dsipsvd) ps –aef | grep dstar Complete set of files in /var/dsipsvd (GIP, RIP, MNG) No errors in /var/log/dsipsvd.log If errors, review log files. Most likely errors: Incorrect router MAC address Incorrectly configured ‘named’

54 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Test Process Coordinate with Icom Tech Support for use of Test System Verify system running correctly Execute ONE (1!) ‘reserve’ command Add ONE (1!) user (yourself) Execute ‘push mng’ command Coordinate test QSO with Icom Tech Support When correctly validated, they’ll give you information on production TRUST_SERVER (USRoot)

55 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Moving to Production Clear system Change TRUST_SERVER Reboot Execute ONE (1!) ‘reserve’ command Add ONE (1!) user (Yourself) Execute ‘push mng’ Coordinate test QSO Add additional users as required Execute addional ‘reserve’ commands as required

56 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Command Queues All interaction with Gateway is via command queues /var/dsipsvd-cmdin & /var/dsipsvd-cmdout Most commands should generate ‘200 Command OK’ Otherwise, look in log files for error details /var/log/dsgwd.log /var/log/dsipsvd.log Limited help available via ‘help’ command

57 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification

58 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Summary Take your time in installation, follow instructions Pay attention to typo on p.6 of manual Test with Icom Tech Support to validate Join Production network Be prudent in use of ‘reserve’ command Watch log files for error descriptions

59 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Installation & Verification Questions/Discussion

60 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Operations

61 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Operations Four call signs used MYCALL – Call sign of the originating station URCALL – Call sign of the desired target station, or CQCQCQ RPT1 – Call sign (& port) of the originating repeater RPT2 – Call sign & designator of the gateway Can also be used for designated local cross-band use

62 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Operations Registration No registration required for local use No call sign required for local use !!!! No private conversations both ends hear all User linking, not site linking Not all users on site can participate Opportunity for confusion!!!

63 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Operations

64 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Operations Multiple ways to traverse Gateway User-Specific call “Follow-me Roaming” Sync Timing Issues Source Routing & gateway sync timing create inability to hear a user- specific call – illustrate in a moment. Zone call Example - URCALL = ‘/K5TIT’ Specific routing of zone call – defaults to Port ‘A’ Port-specific zone call Example – URCALL = ‘/K5TIT C’

65 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Operations Source Routing vs. Sync Timing Creates inability to receive User-specific call Discuss example

66 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Operations User Concerns User “error codes” ‘UR *’ ‘RPT ?’ ‘Did I make the repeater?’ Courtesy tone discussion Problems with full-duplex operation ‘Kerchunking a D-STAR system No squelch tail Call known bad user, (ie: WN5ABC), should return ‘UR *’

67 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Operations Interfacing Digital and Analog Systems Technically possible – of course! Limitations Analog users can’t vary call signs like URCALL & RPT2 Analog users can’t participate in all conversations Creates impression of “D-STAR doesn’t work” Analog users can’t see any included data D-STAR repeaters pass all D-STAR encoded voice and data. Also allows use of applications, discussed later Good use of analog/digital interface Emergency situation, no gateway, local-only MUST limit confusion

68 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Operations Questions/Discussion

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70 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Public Relations & promotion of D-Star with new & existing users. (LISA)

71 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Adding New Users

72 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Call sign length and why Call sign modifier, who needs them, and how to handle them. DNS alias Command line Checking the results Local Registrar

73 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Call signs Call signs must have a total length of eight characters. The 8 th column contains the Port ID or Modifier for a user.

74 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Call sign modifier Who needs them How to handle them

75 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Call sign modifiers This is the extra letter placed in the 8 th column of a user’s call sign.

76 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Who needs them Users that need more than a single ID. Any user that will have two or more radios in use at the same time. Any user that needs more than one IP address.

77 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team How to handle them The recommended convention is a letter added to the 8 th column. Example N5ZPR**B

78 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team DNS Alias This applies the local DNS entry for D-Star. Call sign in lower case A “-” between a modifier and the call sign Example n5zpr n5zpr-b

79 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Add Command Call Sign (Upper Case) Area Repeater (Upper Case) Zone Repeater (Upper Case) Zone Public IP Address Assigned IP Address DNS Alias

80 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Entering Command This is done from the Linux command prompt

81 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Check the Results Check output queue Check the MNG table

82 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Local Registrar Each system should have a local Registrar. Someone to keep track of who was assigned what IP address. That person should also be the one who adds users.

83 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team User Configurations

84 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Applications Questions/Discussion

85 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team DStarMonitor Activity Monitor

86 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Java Application –Runs on Gateway server –Requires Java or above –Uses jPCAP (port monitor) –Uses JDBC (mySQL driver for dstarusers.org) Activity monitor on Gateway Controller IP link DStarMonitor

87 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Station ID All station presence is reported to the Gateway from the Controller, even RF- only RF-only does not identify type of activity RF Gateway activity identifies type of activity (DV or DD) Only IDs reported from the controller recorded

88 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team Gateway Activity DV activity totaled per transmission for one record DD activity reported for each IP packet Packets not recorded, just stations, times, time spans, and packet sizes Use these records for Gateway usage accounting

89 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team DStarMonitor

90 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team dstarusers.org

91 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team dstarusers.org Controlled access to MySQL Must open firewall port for your gateway Register your system on-line at: Sysop will send you return with further details

92 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team D-PRS Icom GPS/APRS Gateway

93 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team D-PRS Icom implements GPS reporting on DV GPS is carried on standard DV data channel APRS Interfaces Developed –javAPRSSrvr – IGate (gateway to APRS-IS) –DStarTNC2 – APRS client interface –DGate – TNC-X D-STAR->APRS RF Interface

94 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team javAPRSSrvr/ DStarTNC2 Java/J# based Bidirectional DV error detection Loop protection Icom GPS supported APRS TNC2 format supported

95 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team D-PRS APRS-IS

96 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team D-PRS APRS Client

97 D-STAR 101 Copyright © 2006 – Texas Interconnect Team D-PRS D-STAR Repeaters


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