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TCP-IP Primer David Cozens. Targets Have a basic understanding of Ethernet network technology Be aware of how this technology is applied on the 5000 series.

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Presentation on theme: "TCP-IP Primer David Cozens. Targets Have a basic understanding of Ethernet network technology Be aware of how this technology is applied on the 5000 series."— Presentation transcript:

1 TCP-IP Primer David Cozens

2 Targets Have a basic understanding of Ethernet network technology Be aware of how this technology is applied on the 5000 series. Be aware of simple debug tools and techniques to perform basic fault finding

3 Network Training - Underlying Technology Ethernet IP TCP

4 Ethernet Physical Ethernet MAC Addresses Ethernet and the 5000 series

5 Physical Ethernet 10baseT/100baseT - twisted pair 10baseT is a subset of the 100baseT specification –100baseT equipment is backwards compatible –You can cable 10baseT and 100baseT equipment together and it will operate at 10Mbps 10 base 2 - coaxial Fibre standards wireless standards

6 MAC Addresses MAC addresses are fixed with particular pieces of hardware - they cannot be changed - if you change the hardware you change the number. The number is normally written 08:00:48:80:00:10

7 Ethernet on the 5000 Series We use 10baseT Ethernet. –Green light on the connector TX –Orange light on the connector RX

8 Hubs and Switches Aides and Pitfalls –Power –Connection LED –Uplink setting –Utilization/collision LEDs Used to connect 10 base T devices together.

9 Ethernet (Revision) Physical Ethernet MAC Addresses Ethernet and the 5000 series

10 IP Address Classes Classes are defined by the most significant 4 bits of the address –Class A - 0xxx networks with 2M hosts » to –Class B - 10xx - 16K networks with 64k hosts » to –Class C - 110x - 2M networks with 256 hosts » to –Class D Reserved for multicast » to –Class E Reserved » to

11 Private Networks Some network addresses are reserved for private networks not connected to the internet. If you are setting up a standalone network use these numbers. – (10/8 prefix) – (172.16/12 prefix) – ( /16 prefix)

12 Subnet Mask and Network Numbers IP Addresses have two components. A network number and a node number. The subnet mask logically ANDed with the IP address gives the network number. The IP Address with the network number removed gives the node number. Network numbers are usually written as the IP address of the network with trailing 0 followed by a the number of bits set in the subnet seperated by a / eg /24 has 24 bits of network number and 8 bits for the node number. If you need to use the AND function on the windows calculator!

13 Subnet Exercise IP Subnet What is Network Number and node number? Network Number /24 Node number is 18 Network Number /28 Node number is 2 IP Subnet What is Network Number and node number?

14 Static Addresses on NT In the Control Panel, select Network, then protocols, then TCP/IP and then properties

15 Static Addresses on Windows 2000 In the Control Panel, select Network and dial-up Connections, then select your Local Area Connection, then Internet Protocol(TCP/IP), then properties and properties again. It’s then similar to NT.

16 Static Addresses on the 5000 Series Use the Network/Address menu

17 PING

18 Subnets and Gateways Why do we need Subnets? –Logically segregate the network –Minimize bandwidth used Gateways connect networks/subnets together

19 Routing When a node wants to talk to another if it is on the same network it talks directly. If it is on a different network it talks to the gateway which forwards (routes) the message on.

20 Default Gateway configuration

21 Tracing the route to another host (tracert)

22 Address Assignment Static Configuration BootP DHCP

23 BootP At startup the following conversation happens between a BootP Client and server. Hello everyone, I have MAC address 00-d0-b7-3e-b0-b3 what are my network parameters? Server Client Hello 00-d0-b7-3e-b0-b3 here is you IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS Server etc.

24 BootP Configuration on 5000 Series The BootP timeout is how long to wait for the server to respond. It may need to be increased on a busy network, or if the server is slow.

25 DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Hello everyone, I have MAC address 00-d0-b7-3e-b0-b3 what are my network parameters? Server The following dialog goes on between client and server Client Hello 00-d0-b7-3e-b0-b3 here is you IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS Server etc. You may lease it for X hours. Hello server, Can I renew my lease. …. Hello server, Can I renew my lease. Yes, have another X hours. ….

26 DHCP configuration on NT In the Control Panel, select Network, then protocols, then TCP/IP and then properties

27 IP - Internet Protocol (Revision) IP Address Classes Subnets Gateways BootP/DHCP Basic Routing

28 TCP - Transmission Control Protocol Connection Based Ports and Sockets Firewall Basics

29 TCP is Connection Based TCP - Transmission Control Protocol

30 Ports and Sockets Ports –Think of our phone analogy - Ports are like phone extensions. –Port Numbers are between 0 and Sockets –A socket is a two way communication channel established on a particular port.

31 Firewalls and the 5000 Series Firewalls at their simplest block connections one way or both ways through the firewall for specific protocols or ports. To use the 5000 series across a firewall the following ports must be open. For FTP ports 20 and 21 (the 5000 series does not support passive mode) For Bridge 1264 (and for trend review) For Modbus TCP 502 If the product is configured to use DNS it must also be able to communicate with the DNS server and PING the DNS server.

32 TCP - Transmission Control Protocol (Revision) Connection Based Ports and Sockets Firewall Basics

33 Whats in a Name? Hostname hydra.eurotherm.co.uk Domain Name These are NOTHING to do with NT domains.

34 Domain Name Service (DNS) DNS servers provide a means of finding the name for an address, or the address for a name. A server knows about its domain and servers in parent and child domains. There are often more than one DNS servers for a domain - both have the same information - it is so the network will still operate if one fails.

35 DNS Setup on the 5000 Series

36 nslookup Tests lookups of names and numbers

37 Ipconfig and winipcfg Microsoft tools for showing network settings Also used to release and renew dhcp leases manually.

38 Other protocols in the TCP/IP suite Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical TCP IP EthernetSLIPPPP UDP ICMPARPFTPhttp MODBUS TCP DNS

39 Modbus TCP The same Modbus data reliably transferred over a TCP socket connection. Think of the socket connection like a complete modbus serial bus. One Modbus TCP connection connects a master device to a slave device and/or a gateway. Upto 247 modbus nodes can be communicated with over a single socket.

40 Modbus TCP and the 5000 The 5000 can simultaneously be –Slave to 4 Modbus TCP socket connections –Master to 16 Modbus devices (Serial, TCP or a mixture) –If configured for serial master communications with talk through enabled then it can act as a gateway to up to 246 serial slaves. –If configured as a serial slave it can still be a Slave to 4 Modbus TCP connections and master to 16 Modbus TCP devices.

41 Modbus TCP Socket Sharing on the 5000 Used to Improve timeout behaviour and reduce resource usage. –If we are talking to multiple serial slaves attached to a gateway they all share the serial bus. We will get better performance if they all share the socket. –If the gateway is also a modbus node (eg a 5000) we don’t need to access the serial wire to talk to it so we will get better communications by making this NOT share sockets.

42 Modbus TCP - Error code B Error code B allows a gateway to send a message back to indicate a timeout. –Some masters do NOT support it so it must be explicitly enabled. –If supported it gives much better support for timeouts from serial devices connected via gateways. Ethernet Serial

43 Summary Ethernet –Physical, MAC Addresses IP –Address Classes, Subnets, Gateways, address assignment (static,BootP,DHCP), Routing TCP –Connection Based, Ports & Sockets, firewalls Other –DNS, Hubs, Routers, ping, nslookup, tracert Modbus TCP


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