Presentation on theme: "Ali (a.s.) Up to the Hijrah"— Presentation transcript:
1Ali (a.s.) Up to the Hijrah A.S. Hashim, MDFrom Wikipedia.com
2Sources of Reference ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Ibn Qutaybah, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali".Madelung,Encyclopaedia of the Holy Prophet and CompanionsTabatabaei,Lapidus,The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward GibbonAl-Shaykh Al-MufidDakakeNahj Al-Balagha, Sermon 3Holt, P.M.; Lambton, Ann K.S.; Lewis, Bernard. Cambridge History of Islam.Watt, William Montgomery. Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford University Press.
3In this Slide Show Family Tree of Ali and Lineage Place of Birth and the NamingAcceptance of IslamTo Recognize the TruthHis Brother, Inheritor and VicegerentAli at age 13 yrsThe Panorama of EcstasyThe Panorama of AnguishMigration to MedinaAt Qu’baa, Ali welcomed by the ProphetAl-Masjid al-NabawiBrotherhood-in-Faith
4Early life Ali is born inside the Ka'ba Ali is raised by Muhammad (pbuh)Ali the First Male to embrace IslamYouthful life in MeccaProphet chooses Ali to be in his bed as he leaves Mecca to go to Medina
5Family Tree of Ali Ali's father was Abu Talib son of Abdul Mut’talib. Abu Talib was the custodian of the Ka'baand a sheikh of the Benu Hashim, an important branch of the eminent Quraish tribe.Abu Talib was also an uncle of Muhammad.Ali's mother was Fatima Bint Asad.She belonged to Benu Hashim of Quraish tooThis made Ali a descendant of Ishmael, the son of Prophet Ibrahim or Abraham.
6Lineage Ali Abu Talib Fatima Bint Asad Clan of Quraish Father Benu HashimFatherAbu TalibAliClan of QuraishBenu HashimMotherFatima Bint Asad
7Lineage Most records do indicate that during Muhammad's time, Ali was the only person born in the Ka'ba sanctuary in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam.His father was Abu Talib ibn Abdul Mut'talib andhis mother was Fatima Bint Asad,but Ali was raised in the household of Muhammad,Previously Muhammad himself was raised by Abu Talib, his uncle.When Muhammad reported receiving a divine revelation,Ali was the first male to accept his message,dedicating his life to the cause of Islam.
8Place of Birth and the Naming Many sources, including all Shi'a records,attest that during Mohammad's time Ali was the only person born inside the Ka'ba in the city of Mecca,where he stayed with his mother for three days.However, some sources contend that he was born beside the Ka'ba rather than inside it.According to a tradition, Muhammad was the first person whom Ali saw as he took the newborn in his hands.Muhammad named him Ali, meaning "the exalted one".
10Muhammad and Abu TalibMuhammad had a close relationship with Ali's parents.When Muhammad was orphaned and later lost his grandfather (Abdul Mut'talib),Ali's father, Abu Talib, took the 8 yr old Muhammad into his house. He was like a member of the family.Ali was born two or three years after Muhammad had married Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid.When Ali was a few years old,a famine occurred in and around Mecca,affecting the economic conditions of Ali's father, who had a large family to support.Muhammad took Ali into his home to raise him.
11Acceptance of IslamThe second period of Ali's life begins in 610 when Ali declared Islam at age 10 and ends with the Hijrah of Muhammad to Medina in 622.When Muhammad reported that he had received a divine revelation,Ali, then only about ten years old, believed him and professed to Islam.According to Ibn Ishaaq and some other authorities,Ali was the first male to embrace Islam.Tamara adds other traditions making the similar claim of being the first Muslim in relation to Zaid or Abu Bakr.Some historians and scholars believe Ali's conversion ought not to be considered because he was a child at the time.Yet the Prophet never asked any other child, other than Ali, to do so (to convert), since in the eyes of the Prophet, Ali was uniquely capable and mature for the task
12كرم الله وجهه Karram Allahu Wajhahu Shi'a doctrine asserts that in keeping with Ali's divine mission,he accepted Islam before he took part in any pre-Islamic Meccan traditional religion rites,regarded by Muslims as polytheistic (shirk) or pagan.Hence the Shi'a say of Ali that his face is honored— that is, it was never sullied by prostrations before idols.The Sunnis also use the honorific term Karam Allahu Wajhahu كرم الله وجهه, which means "God's Favor upon his Face."
13To Recognize the Truth In accepting Islam The Most Worthy Endeavor 2. To evaluate the Message3. To believe in the Message1. To know the person of the ProphetIn accepting Islam5. To enthusiastically spread the Message4. To face the consequencesThe Most Worthy Endeavor
14Conversion, and Hanif حنيف The reason his acceptance is often not called a conversion,is because Ali was never an idol worshiper like the people of Mecca.Ali was known to have broken idols in the mold of Abrahamand asked people why they worshiped something they made themselves.Ali's grandfather, it is acknowledged without controversy,along with some members of the Benu Hashim clan, were Hanifs,Hanif means followers of a monotheistic belief system, prior to the coming of Islam.
15With the Advent of Islam For three years Muhammad invited people to Islam in a confidential manner,Many people thus converted to Islam but confidentially.Then Muhammad was commanded by God to start inviting to Islam publicly.When, according to the Quran, he was commanded to invite his closer relatives to come to IslamMuhammad gathered the Benu Hashim clan in a ceremony.Ali, still preteen, was among them
16His Brother, Inheritor and Vicegerent According to al-Tabari, Ibn Athir and Abu al-Fida,Muhammad announced at invitational events thatwhoever assisted him in his invitation would become his brother, inheritor and vicegerent.Only Ali, who was thirteen or fourteen years old, stepped forward to help him.This invitation was repeated three times,but Ali was the only person who answered Muhammad.Upon Ali's constant and only answer to his call, Muhammad declared that Ali was his brother, inheritor and vicegerent and people must obey him.
17Hadith of WarningMost of the adults present were uncles of Ali and Muhammad,and Abu Lahab laughed at them and declared to Abu Talib that he must bow down to his own son, as Ali was now his EmirThis event is known as the Hadith of Warning.During the persecution of Muslims and the boycott of 3 years of the Benu Hashim in Mecca,Teenager Ali was involved and suffered in the boycott for 3 years, yet he stood firmly in support of Muhammad.Neither Abu Bakr, nor Omar, neither Uthman were involved in the boycott or suffered by it.
18Ali as designated by Muhammad as: Ali at age 13 yrsTo Declare Islam Publicly, Muhammad gives a Party to his RelativesAsking who would support him in his task?None volunteered except the 13 Yr old AliMuhammad designates AliAli as designated by Muhammad as:the deputy, andthe brother,the one to succeed him
19At age 13 yrs أخي ووصيِّ وخليفتي فيكم؟ Muhammad asked in the Party:“Who would then uphold me so that he becomes:My Brother, My Deputy, and the One to Succeed me?”فأيكم يؤازرني على هذا الأمر على أن يكون:أخيووصيِّوخليفتي فيكم؟
20Ali designated by Muhammad as: the brother أخيthe one to succeed وخليفتي فيكمthe deputy ووصيِّ
21The Panorama of Ecstasy Ali was in ecstasy about:The Quranic Revelations coming to the Prophet frequentlyHe knew of each revelation: meaning, time, place, and its chronological orderAbout ¾ of the Holy Quran had been revealed by the HijrahAli 10 yr old, happy to see Abu Bakr and many others embracing Islam.The Prophet’s designation of 13 yr old Ali as his brother, deputy, the one to succeed him.Ali 16 yr old, and the conversion of the 27 yr old Omar to IslamIn high ecstasy about the Prophet’s Israa and Mi’raaj, Ali about 19 yrs oldIn ecstasy and hope, Ali 23 yr old, happy about:the agreement with the Ansaars for Muhammad to reside in Medinaand leave the hotbed of vindictive attitude against Islam by Quraish
22The Panorama of Anguish Ali was Anguished about:The degrading treatment dealt to Muslims by Quraish.The obsession of Abu Lahab against Muhammad.The hurts dealt to Bilal and Ammar’s family.His brother, Ja’far, and Muslims having to leave to Abyssinia.The agony of the 3 Yr boycott, leading to the death ofKhadijah andAbu TalibThe failure of Ta'if’s Mission.The Quraish hegemony and vindictive attitude.The danger for the very life of the Prophet in Mecca.
23Migration to MedinaWith arrangement and invitation of the Muslims of Medina, Muhammad ordered Muslims of Mecca to migrate to Medina.The migration began in batches. Ali was one of the very last to remain in Mecca,entrusted with responsibility for returning the Trusts to its owners,and famously slept in the bed of Muhammad when the Quraish led by Ikrima attempted to murder Muhammad as he slept.Meanwhile Abu Bakr accompanied Muhammad in his migration for Medina.Due to the danger of the Quraish, they did not take the direct road from Mecca to Medina.They moved instead in the opposite direction, and took refuge in a cave in Mount Thaur some five miles south of Mecca.
24Migration to Medina ومن الناس من يشري نفسه ابتغاء مرضاة الله In 622, the year of Muhammad's migration to Yathrib (now Medina),Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bedto impersonate the Prophet andthwart an assassination plotso that Muhammad could escape in safety.This night is called Laylatul Mabeet.According to some Hadith, a verse was revealed about Ali concerning his sacrifice on the night of Hijrah, which says,ومن الناس من يشري نفسه ابتغاء مرضاة الله"And among men is he who sells his selfin exchange for the pleasure of Allah"
25Laylatul Mabeet ليلة المـبـيـت Ali survived the plot,but risked his life again by staying in Mecca to carry out Muhammad's instructions:to restore to their owners all the goods and propertiesthat had been entrusted to Muhammad for safekeeping.Ali then went to Medinawith his mother Fatima daughter of Asad,and Fatima daughter of Muhammad,Fatima daughter of Hamza,and Fatima daughter of Zubair,having no guards or guides.
26At the Critical Juncture, Ali, age 23 old To leave Mecca, Muhammad asks Ali to be in his bed to fool the would-be assassinsAli glad to risk his life for Islam, succeeds in fooling the would-be killers of MuhammadHighly inflamed, Quraish goes on the look out for MuhammadAli returns Muhammad’s Trust to its owners in MeccaThus Ali takes a second chance to be killed by QuraishAli leaves Mecca to Medina on foot along with Fatima and othersThe ordeal from Mecca to Medina takes 2 weeks of walking.Ali to protect himself and others from thieves or attackers.
27At Qu’baa, Ali welcomed by the Prophet The Prophet waited for about two weeks in Qubaa,Seeing Ali from a distance, the Prophet welcomes Ali and the 4 Fatimas enthusiastically,Ali was exhausted, for he had finished the journey of about 300 miles, walking, in two weeks.The Prophet was very happy for Ali,Ali’s feet were swollen from the arduous walking, the 300 miles,The family is safe in Medina, thanks to the Almighty.
28Al-Masjid al-NabawiIn Medina, Muhammad decided to construct a mosque immediately.A piece of land was chosen and the price of the land was paid for by Abu Bakr.Uthman had also contributed toward the constructionMuslims constructed the mosque collectivelyThe Prophet himself participated in the constructionAli also took part in the construction.
31Brotherhood-in-Faith When Muhammad arrived in Medina, he paired offEach Meccan immigrant (Muhaajir) was to be with one of the Muslim residents of the city (Ansaari),He chose one exception: and that was to pair off himself with Ali, since both were from Mecca, as Brothers-in-Faithas Brothers-in-Faith was a unique distinction and honor for Ali.The only two Muhajiroon were Muhammad and Ali as Brothers-in FaithMuhammad therefore fulfills the 1st pledge of the 3 points about Ali:the brother,and the deputy,and the one to succeed him:إنّ هذا أخي ووصيّ وخليفتي فيكم ، فاسمعوا له وأطيعوا
33Brief Review Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب); was the cousin of the Prophet (pbuh)and he was the son-in-law of the Prophet,Ali Khilaafah was from 656 to 661.Sunni Muslims consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidoon (rightly guided Khalifa),Shi'a Muslims regard Ali as the first Imam and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad, all of which are members of the Ahlul Bayt, the household of Muhammad.This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) into the Sunni and Shi'a branches.
34Brief Review, Continued Ali migrated to Medina shortly after Muhammad did.Once there Muhammad told Ali that God had ordered him to give his daughter, Fatima, to Ali in marriage.For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali was extremely active in his service,leading parties of warriors on battles,and carrying messages and orders.Ali took part in the early raids against caravans from Meccaand later in almost all the battles fought by the early Muslim community.
35Brief Review, Continued In Muslim culture, Ali is respected:for his courage, knowledge, belief, honesty, unbending devotion to Islam, deep loyalty to Muhammad,equal treatment of all Muslims, and for his generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies,and therefore Ali is central to mystical traditions in Islam such as Sufism.Ali retains his stature as an authority on:Quranic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence and religious thought.Ali holds a high position in almost all Sufi orders which trace their lineage through him to Muhammad.Ali's influence has thus continued throughout Islamic history.
36In Sermon 109, page 162, Ali about Muhammad’s Look at Life Muhammad disdained the pleasures of this world. He held it in contempt.He realized that Allah intentionally kept it away from him but spread it out for others.Therefore, Muhammad distanced it from his heart, banished it from his mind. He wished that its attraction be concealed from his eyes so as neither garments nor hope for staying in it matters much.He conveyed from Allah the pleas, Counseled his people, warning, but at the same time calling them towards Paradise by giving the Good Tidings.قَدْ حَقَّرَ الدُّنْيَا وَصَغَّرَهَا، وَأَهْوَنَ بَهَا وَهَوَّنَهَا، وَعَلِمَ أَنَّ اللهَ تعالى زَوَاهَاعَنْهُ اخْتِيَاراً، وَبَسَطَهَا لِغَيْرِهِ احْتِقَاراً،فَأَعْرَضَ عَنِ الدُّنْيَا بِقَلْبِهِ، وَأَمَاتَ ذِكْرَهَا عَنْ نَفْسِهَ، وَأَحَبَّ أَنْ تَغِيبَ زِينَتُهَا عَنْ عَيْنِهِ، لِكَيْلاَ يَتَّخِذَ مِنْهَا رِيَاشاً، أوْ يَرْجُوَفِيهَا مَقَاماًبَلَّغَ عَنْ رَبِّهِ مُعْذِراً، وَنَصَحَ لاُِمَّتِهِ مُنْذِراً، وَدَعاَ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ مُبَشِّراً، .
37In Conclusion Ali from birth up to the Hijrah Acceptance of Islam His Brother, Inheritor and VicegerentThe Panorama of EcstasyThe Panorama of AnguishLaylatul Mabeet ليلة المـبـيـتBrotherhood-in-Faith
38Finally we quote the Quran: By the Token of TimeVerily Man is in loss,Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience.بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِإِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍإِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ