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Introduction to Biology The Scientific Study of Life.

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1 Introduction to Biology The Scientific Study of Life

2 Biology scientific study of life ranges from molecular to global –microscopic to ecosystem includes diversity of life now & in the past

3 Biological Subjects Cytology Virology Embryology Anatomy Physiology Molecular Biology Genetics Botany Ichthyology Microbiology Zoology Evolutionary Biology Phylogeny Entomology Ecology


5 Organization 5 kingdoms Bacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia

6 Organization organisms are placed into kingdoms based on their characteristics all organisms in a kingdom possess same characteristics

7 Characteristics of Animalia Kingdom multicellular eukaryotic cells no cell walls heterotrophs- consumers

8 Characteristics of Life properties shared by all living things Cellular Organization Metabolism Homeostasis Growth & Reproduction Heredity

9 Cellular Organization all living things are composed of cells –tiny compartments surrounded by a membrane some are made up of one others have trillions

10 Metabolism all living things use energy all energy originates from the sun plants use this energy in photosynthesis to make sugars we eat plants or animals that have eaten plants energy is transferred to us transfer is metabolism

11 Homeostasis living things have processes that ensure internal environment remains stable

12 Growth & Reproduction all living things must grow they must reproduce

13 Heredity living things must have a genetic system found in molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) determines properties of organism genetic code is used to pass information to successive generations transmission of traits is heredity

14 Organization of Life enormous range of life forms on the planet can be broken into hierarchical levels of organization Hierarchical organization –means all organizational levels follow a hierarchy from lower to higher –each level builds upon level above Top-biosphere –all environments on Earth that support life next level down-ecosystem –all organisms living in a given area as well as all non-living physical aspects of environment such as water, soil, sunlight, etc relationship of organism to its environment is studied in the branch of biology called ecology below ecosystem-community –all organisms inhabiting a given ecosystem Population –interacting group of individuals of one species one individual of a species is organism


16 Hierarchy of Organization of Individual Chemical or Molecular Atoms molecules Cells basic unit of structure and function in living things Tissues made of cells similar in structure & function working together to perform a specific activity 4 basic tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve Organs made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc. Organ Systems groups of two or more tissues working together to perform a specific function Human body has 11 organ systems - circulatory, digestive, endocrine, excretory (urinary), immune (lymphatic), integumentary, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory & skeletal Organisms entire living things that can carry out all basic life processes take in materials, release energy from food, release wastes, grow, respond to the environment reproduce usually made up of organ systems, but an organism may be made up of only one cell



19 Study of Biology special way of thinking uses empirical or scientific method –self-correcting process for asking questions & observing natures answers separates science from philosophy

20 Parts of Scientific Method Observations –made in the real world Question –leads to a question about those observations Hypothesis –testable assumption or prediction Test hypothesis –conduct research Reaffirm theory –reaffirm or disaffirm theory in relation to outcome of research


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