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Pregnancy and Childbirth

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Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy and Childbirth"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pregnancy and Childbirth
Chapter 5 The Developing Child Page 138

2 Empathy Belly Choose a date to wear During one class period
Men and women both have the opportunity

3 Section 5-1 The Developing Baby
Key terms Make flash cards with vocabulary word on one side and the definition on the other

4 Video Online the First nine months
YouTube - 9 months of pregnancy in less than 3 minutes

5 Conception About once a month, an OVUM (female cell or egg) is released by one of a woman’s ovaries The egg moves through the Fallopian tube to the UTERUS (the organ where the baby develops) The journey takes about 2-3 days

6 Conception When the egg reaches the uterus, it usually disintegrates and is flushed out of the body with the menstrual flow

7 Conception Sometimes the egg meets and is fertilized by a SPERM (male cell) When the ovum and sperm unite, CONCEPTION takes place and pregnancy begins

8 Fertilization Can take place only 2-3 days after the ovum has been released However, sperm can live up to 7 days There is a time period of about 10 days each months when a female can become pregnant

9 Period of the Zygote The first stage in development
ZYGOTE (fertilized egg) Time period lasts about 2 weeks The zygote travels down the Fallopian tube and attaches itself to the thickened lining of the uterus The zygote grows by cell division Example After 2 weeks it is the size of a pinhead

10 Period of the Embryo Second stage of pregnancy (EMBRYO)
Develops from the 3rd week to the 8th The mass of cells develops into all major systems of the human body- heart and lungs, bones and muscle A sac filled with fluid forms around the embryo ( AMNIOTIC FLUID) A tissue called the (PLACENTA) develops (UMBILICAL CORD) bring nourishment and takes away waste

11 Period of the Fetus Last stage of pregnancy
From the 8-9th week until birth Divide into 9 groups: Using the chart on pages , make a chart depicting a month of pregnancy Include: Size and weight, development, description, and graphic


13 Preparing for Birth During the 9th month, the baby drops into the birth canal (LIGHTENING) Fetus is usually upside down- head near mother’s pelvis Less active- little space to move The muscles of the uterus and abdomen stretch up to 60 times their original size And return within 6 weeks of birth

14 Length of Pregnancy 37-42 weeks 40 weeks most common

15 Section 5-2 Conception

16 Objectives Describe how personal characteristics are inherited
Explain the cause of multiple births Evaluate different possible solutions for infertility

17 Key Terms Chromosomes Dominant Genes Infertility Recessive Surrogate

18 The Genetic Package Each person inherits characteristics from both parents Examples: eye color, hair color, body build, etc. Musical ability Medical conditions

19 Chromosomes (CHROMOSOMES) tiny threadlike particles in the nucleus of every cell At conception, every human baby receives 46 Chromosomes come in 23 pairs from mom and dad

20 Genes (GENES) units that determine the child’s inherited characteristics Each chromosome has thousands of genes

21 Dominant and Recessive Genes
(DOMINANT) stronger (RECESSIVE) weaker Example: mom has blue eyes and dad has brown What color will the child have? Child will probably have brown eyes

22 Making a unique person Each sperm and egg contains a different combination of genes When they combine in a fertilized egg, they produce a unique individual Example: the child may have The father’s eye color The mother’s hair color Grandfather’s dimples, etc.

23 The Sex of the Child Determined at conception Sex chromosomes: X and Y
Every egg cell contains an X chromosome Each sperm cell contains either an X or Y If the sperm that fertilized the egg carries an X the child is a girl (XX) If the sperm carries a Y the child is a boy (XY)

24 Multiple Births Are determined at conception
Sometimes the mass of cells split in half soon after fertilization Each clump of cells continues to divide and grow into a separate embryo Result: (IDENTICAL TWINS) Both began as one zygote Same sex and characteristics

25 Fraternal Twins Form when two eggs are released at the same time and each is fertilized They grow side by side in the uterus Different eggs and different sperm Only similar as other siblings

26 Infertility The inability to become pregnant (INFERTILITY)
Medical advances improve chances to become pregnant Perhaps there are physical problems: Women’s ovaries are not releasing an egg each month Weak sperm

27 Options for Infertile Couples
Adoption Artificial insemination In vitro fertilization Ovum transfer Surrogate mother Divide into five groups Investigate a topic pages Record your findings

28 Section 5-3 Problems in Prenatal Development

29 Losing a baby (MISCARRIAGE) baby dies before 20 weeks of pregnancy
(STILLBIRTH) baby dies after 20 weeks Support groups help with mental pain Surgery to remove fetus

30 Types of Birth Defects Serious problems that threaten the baby’s health or ability to live Hundreds of birth defects Some are mild or can be corrected Others are severe lifelong disabilities Some may cause death About 3 in every 100 births

31 Examples Misshapen foot Extra toe Blindness Etc.

32 Causes of Birth Defects
Don’t know what causes about 60% Research is an on-going process March of Dimes (hyperlink) Found 4 main causes: Environmental causes Hereditary causes Errors in chromosomes Interaction of heredity and environment

33 Environmental Causes Dependency on mother’s body for nourishment and oxygen Diet Harmful substances Medicines Exposure to outside hazards (radiation)

34 Hereditary Causes Thousands of genes make up a genetic profile
5-6% of recessive genes are imperfect Usually not a problem However, if each parent passes on the same recessive defective genes the gene becomes dominant Males more prone: color blindness, hemophilia

35 Errors in Chromosomes Example: too many or too few chromosomes in each of the baby’s cells Not inherited Most common Down syndrome Extra chromosome 21

36 Interaction of Heredity and Environment
Example: inherit a tendency for a heart defect with another factor such as a drug or a virus Example: cleft lip and spina bifida

37 Prevention Drugs, alcohol, caffeine avoidance Make healthy choices
Genetic counseling Prenatal test: Ultrasound Amniocentesis Chorionic villi

38 Section 5-4 Avoiding Dangers
FAS (FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME) Directly related to alcohol consumption Affected by the stage of pregnancy in which the alcohol was consumed Interferes with tissue growth and brain development Don’t drink at all

39 Fetal alcohol syndrome

40 Other Drugs Prescription medicines Over-the-counter medicines Caffeine
Nicotine Illegal drugs Inhalants

41 X-rays Radiation from X-rays can cause birth defects
Both men and women should avoid X-rays before pregnancy Abdominal shields

42 Rubella German measles Effects: Deafness Blindness Heart disease
Mental retardation

43 STDs Result in serious illness, deformity, or even death
Some can be treated Some have no cures

44 AIDS If a woman has AIDS, baby may be at risk
Given treatment to reduce the chances that the baby will develop AIDS Early testing is important

45 Birth Defects Pamphlet

46 The end Karen Palmer 2010

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