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PREGNANCY and CHILDBIRTH. The Developing Baby (section1)  Conception  Sperm penetrate and fertilizes the ovum  Pregnancy begins  Called Conception.

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Presentation on theme: "PREGNANCY and CHILDBIRTH. The Developing Baby (section1)  Conception  Sperm penetrate and fertilizes the ovum  Pregnancy begins  Called Conception."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Developing Baby (section1)  Conception  Sperm penetrate and fertilizes the ovum  Pregnancy begins  Called Conception

3 All about the Woman  Ovum  Approximately every 28 days an ovum (egg) is released by one of woman’s two ovaries  Ovulation – this occurs as part of the woman’s menstrual cycle  Hormones are released and woman’s body prepare the uterus in case ovum becomes fertilized  If fertilization does not occur, the lining that was formed in the uterus is shed as the monthly menstrual period

4  Uterus – The organ in the woman’s body in which new baby develops during pregnancy  It is pear shaped – about the size of your fist  Strongest muscle and is able to expand during pregnancy

5  When ovum released…travels through the Fallopian Tube…this connects the ovary to the uterus  This journey takes 2 - 3 days  When ovum reaches the uterus it USUALLY disintegrates and leaves the body with the menstrual flow

6  If a sperm (male cell) reaches the Fallopian tube and penetrates the ovum…conception occurs  Ovum live about 12 – 24 hours

7  Sperm is capable of fertilizing an ovum about 48 – 72 hours  During a woman’s menstrual cycle…about three– four days that intercourse can lead to conception  If conception occurs as the baby is developing this is called  PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

8 Stages of Pregnancy  Germinal Stage  First Stage  Formation of Zygote (fertilized egg)  Germinal Stage lasts about two weeks  Key Steps of Pregnancy Occur  Cell Division  Zygote grows by cell division while still in the fallopian tube  Rapid growth for about four days  Reaches the uterus  Implantation  Lining of uterus is thick enough for the zygote to attach itself and continue to grow  Zygote implants in the uterus  Size of the head of a pin

9 Stages of Pregnancy  Embryonic Stage  Baby is now called an embryo  Third week through about the eighth week of pregnancy  Rapid growth  Organs and body systems  Cells divide into major systems:  heart  lungs  bones  Muscles  Systems continue to grow and are too immature to function on their own

10  Neural tube – tube in the back of the developing baby – will become the brain and the spinal cord (Folic Acid in daily diet)  About 27 days after conception the neural tube closes and the brain begins to take control of the body systems  By sixth week, connections between brain and spine allow movements of embryo (mom cannot feel movements and she might not even know she is pregnant!)

11  At this time, brain is sensitive to damage from any drugs or alcohol mom might take  If any woman is engaging in activities in which she might conceive…it is imperative that she avoid all alcohol and drugs

12  A sac firms around the embryo…this is the amniotic sac  It is filled with amniotic fluid that cushions and protects the developing baby  The sac is formed from layers of cells in the uterus  The developing embryo is about 1 inch long

13  Placenta develops…tissue from special layers of cells in uterus  Rich in blood vessels and is attached to the walls of the uterus  Mom’s bloodstream carries food and oxygen to the placenta  Placenta absorbs oxygen and nourishment from mom’s blood and transports to the baby through the umbilical cord

14  Umbilical cord connects the baby to the placenta  Umbilical cord takes carbon dioxide and other waste products away from the baby and to the placenta  Umbilical cord is rarely flexible enough to loop around the baby’s neck  Umbilical cord and placenta provide everything the baby needs until birth

15 Fetal Stage  Longest stage begins about 8 th or 9 th week continues till baby’s birth  Developing baby is now called a “fetus”  Buds for 20 “baby teeth” appear  Vocal cords develop  Digestive system and kidneys begin to function  By end of third month spontaneous movements are possible

16  During fourth or fifth month fetus can touch the walls of the uterus when stretching or kicking…mom can now feel these  (Quickening)  Development continues as fetus prepares to live independently  Major organs become ready to function without mom’s help  Fat deposits accumulate under the skin  Fetus’ appearance becomes smoother and rounder  Fetus store nutrients and builds immunity to diseases and infections  By seventh baby is developed enough that it could live outside of the womb but needing a lot of medical help

17  Fetus can:  Suck its thumb  Cough  Sneeze  Yawn  Hiccup  Fetus continues to grow  Amount of amniotic fluid increases as fetus grows  Uterus expands  During last few months of pregnancy fetus doesn’t have a lot of room to stretch and takes on “fetal position”  Note page 108 and 109 in text book…fetal development month by month

18 Preparing for Birth  Length of pregnancy…  40 weeks  280 days from last menstrual cycle  Toward end of 40 weeks baby’s weight shifts downward called “Lightening”  Baby’s head drops into birth canal  Most babies are born with head down  If seat down or feet down this is called Breech Presentation  Sometimes requires a Caesarian Birth  Even though mom’s uterus and abdomen have stretched to limits…they return to normal size and shape about six weeks after delivery

19 Closer Look at Conception  Heredity  Passing on of characteristics  Inherited characteristics  Physical characteristics  Predisposition of talents or abilities  Medical conditions

20  Chromosomes  Tiny threadlike structures in nucleus of cell  At conception every human baby receives 46 chromosome  23 chromosomes from mom  23 chromosomes from dad  Genes  Genes determine a human’s inherited characteristics  Each chromosome has thousands of genes  Genome  Blueprint for each person  DNA  Genes are made up of DNA  Human’s 46 chromosomes make up that persons DNA  No one has identical DNA except identical twins

21  Each person receives two genes for every inherited characteristic one from mom and one from dad  If the genes are the same, that person inherits that characteristic  If the genes are different the characteristic is controlled by the stronger gene  Dominant Genes  The stronger gene  Recessive Genes  The weaker gene  This gene is not expressed in the inherited characteristic

22  Heredity tells us how people in a family resemble each other  Heredity also explains why people in a family look quite different  Each sperm and egg contain a different combination of genes  Sex of a child is determined at conception  Sex chromosomes come in two types X and Y  Each ovum in woman’s ovaries carries an X chromosome  Each sperm in the man’s body carries either an X or a Y chromosome  XX combination is a girl  XY combination is a boy

23 Multiple Births  Multiple Births – Birth to more than one child at a time  Twins the most common multiple birth  Identical Twins  Woman’s ovum is fertilized  Cell division occurs  Mass of cells split in half and two separate masses are present  Each mass of cells continues to divide and grow into separate embryos  One ovum  One sperm  Two babies  Same sex  Same DNA  Very similar physical characteristics

24  Fraternal Twins  Two eggs are released at the same time  Each fertilized by two different sperm  Fraternal twins are siblings who happen to be in mom’s womb at the same time  May be the same sex or one of each  3% of all births are twins (3 out of 100 births)  23 out of 1000 births are fraternal twins  Out of this 1000 births only about 4 will be identical twins  Birth of 3 or more babies is rare  Rise in use of fertility treatments increases chance of greater number of babies

25 Family Planning  Every time a couple has intercourse, conception may take place  Contraception helps to prevent conception from occurring  Contraception methods do not eliminate the risk of STD’s  Abstinence is the only contraception method that will 100% prevent pregnancy  Methods of Family Planning  Page 119

26 Infertility  Infertility is the inability to become pregnant  Affects both males and females  Treatments  Drugs  Procedures  Expensive  Invasive  Emotionally trying

27 Options for Infertile Couples  Adoption  Couple takes on all legal responsibilities of raising and loving and nurturing the child  Artificial Insemination  Doctor injects sperm into woman’s uterus  Timed with ovulation  Can have sperm donor  In Vitro Fertilization  Doctor combines ovum and sperm  If ovum becomes fertilized, doctor places zygote in woman’s uterus  If zygote attaches to uterine wall pregnancy takes place

28 Options for Infertile Couples  Ovum Transfer  Similar to in vitro but ovum has been donated  Surrogate Mother  Substitute mother becomes pregnant fo have a baby for another woman  A lot of legal arrangement


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