2Problems in Prenatal Development Sometimes a pregnancy begins, but a baby doesn’t develop normallyIf the baby dies before the 20th week it is called a miscarriageIf the baby dies after that time, it is called a stillbirth.15-20% of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage2% ends in stillbirthDue to bonds that are formed way before the child is born, parents (especially the woman) may go through grieving.
3Birth DefectsSome babies survive the pregnancy but are born with serious problems called birth defects.Some birth defects include:Cerebral PalsyCleft Lift and/or palateDown SyndromeMuscular DystrophySickle Cell AnemiaSpina Bifida and more!
4Causes of Birth Defects Some causes are environmental because it is during the first few weeks that a baby develops all the bodily systems needed for survivalThe mother’s dietAny diseases or infections the mother hasHarmful substancesSome medicinesExposure to hazards (such as chemicals, X-rays, etc.)Some causes are hereditarySometimes a child inherits a defective gene that is dominant such as Huntington'sSome conditions affect only one sex and usually it’s the malesHemophiliaColor blindness and more
5More Causes of Birth defects Errors in chromosomesSuch as when a baby has too many or too few chromosomes or has broken or rearranged chromosomesThis usually leads to Down Syndrome
6Prevention and Diagnosis of Birth Defects All types of birth defects cannot be anticipated or controlled, but there are several things that couples can do to minimize the chances.Genetic counseling for those who have a history of birth defects in their familyPrenatal tests that can also determine whether or not a baby will be born with a birth defectAFP tests the protein levels in the liver and an abnormal level could me a birth defectUltrasound can help determine problems with the baby’s skeletal, circulatory, or nervous systems.Amniocentesis is when fluids are withdrawn fro the amniotic fluid and taken to a lab to be tested for birth defects
7The DilemmaWhat is your opinion on knowing if a child has a birth defect before they are born?What would you do?What do you think about parents who want this information only to determine whether to abort the baby or not?Write a half page or more explaining your position on this topic!You have 3 minutes to copy down these questionsThey should all be discussed in your paper
8Avoiding Dangers to the Baby Always avoid alcohol which leads to Fetal alcohol syndrome1 in 5 babies born with this does not live to see his or her 1st birthdayOther DrugsMedicines that are over the counter and prescribe by the doctorCaffeineNicotineAll illegal drugsinhalants
9Causes of Drugs Not avoiding the drugs can lead to: Low birth weight SIDS (Sudden infant death syndrome)Risks of seizuresTremors and developmental delayCongenital heart disease
10Hazardous Substances and Chemicals A pregnant woman should also avoid:Paint-low odor and/or latexPesticidesLeadCarbon monoxideMercury (found in fish)
11InfectionsOccasionally a woman might get and infection during pregnancy and should seek immediate doctor’s attention.Some of the infections include:RubellaToxoplasmosisChicken poxOther diseases that may cause birth defects includes STD’s and AIDS
12Reflection Write down 3 facts you learned about birth defects today. Write down 3 more things you would like to learn about birth defects.